w.ethnia.org
   w.ethnia.org
 

1999-JAN-01



 ° SOVEREIGN & SEMI-INDEPENDENT POLITIES  ° PROTECTORATES & MANDATES  ° FEDERATED POLITIES  ° TERRITORIES & DEPENDENCIES
 ° REBEL ENTITIES & GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE  ° ORGANISATIONS & GROUPINGS


Independent & Semi-Independent Polities


ACHOLILAND
Rebellion
Lord''s Resistance Army in the Districts of Acholiland : LRA  (Gulu)Lord''s Resistance Army : LRA (en)  (Gulu) Joseph Kony
AFARS
RebellionExile
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy : FRUD in exile  (Sanaa)Front pour la Restauration de l''Unité et de la Démocratie : FRUD (fr) + FRUD : الجبهة من أجل استعادة الوحدة والديمقراطية (ar) + QAFAR Jumhuri : عفار (aa)  (Sana''a) President Ahmed Dini
ALGERIA
UNO Member
People''s Democratic Algerian Republic : PDAR  (Algiers)Al-Djoumhouriyya AL-DJAZÂ''IRIYYA ad-Dīmouqrāţiyya ash-Sha''biyya : لجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (ar)  (Al-Djazaïr) President Liamine Zeroual
ANGOLA
UNO Member
Republic of ANGOLA [United Nations Observer Mission in Angola-MONUA]  (Luanda)República de ANGOLA (pt)  (Luanda) President Jose Eduardo dos Santos
ANJOUAN
Rebellion
State of ANJOUAN  (Mutsamudu)État d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Dawlat NZWANI : حالة أنجوان (ar) + Jimbo la NDZUWANI (wni)  (Mutsamudu) President Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim
BENIN
UNO Member
Republic of BENIN  (Porto Novo + Cotonou)République du BÉNIN (fr)  (Porto Novo + Cotonou) President Mathieu Kerekou
BOTSWANA
UNO Member
Republic of BOTSWANA  (Gaborone)Republic of BOTSWANA (en) + Lefatshe la BOTSWANA (tn)  (Gaborone) President Festus Mogae
BURKINA FASO
UNO Member
Republic of BURKINA FASO  (Ouagadougou)République du BURKINA FASO (fr)  (Ouagadougou) President Blaise Compaore
BURUNDI
UNO Member
Republic of BURUNDI  (Bujumbura)République du BURUNDI (fr) + Republika y''uBURUNDI (rn)  (Bujumbura) President Pierre Buyoya
BURUNDI HUTU
Rebellion
HUTU Rebellion of Burundi  (Bujumbura)Forces Nationales de Libération : FNL (fr) + ABAHUTU Burundi (rn)  (Bujumbura) Agathon Rwasa
CAMEROON
UNO Member
Republic of CAMEROON  (Yaounde)République du CAMEROUN (fr) + Republic of CAMEROON (en)  (Yaoundé) President Paul Biya
CAPE VERDE
UNO Member
Republic of CAPE VERDE  (Praia)República de CABO VERDE (pt) + Repúblika di KAUBERDI (pov)  (Cidade da Praia) President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro
CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE
RebellionExile
Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front  (Caprivi Zipfel)Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front (en)  (Caprivi Zipfel) Mishake Muyongo
CENTRAL-AFRICA
UNO Member
Central African Republic : CAR [United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic-MINURCA]  (Bangui)République CENTRAFRICAINE (fr) + Ködörösêse tî BÊAFRÎKA (sg)  (Bangui) President Ange-Felix Patasse
CHAD
UNO Member
Republic of CHAD  (Ndjamena)Jumhūriyyat TSHĀD : جمهورية تشاد (ar) + République du TCHAD (fr)  (N''Djamena) President Idriss Deby
COMOROS
UNO Member
Federal and Islamic Republic of THE COMOROS  (Moroni)KOMORI ilitangazwa kuwa Jamhuri ya Kiislamu (zdj) + Jumhūrīyat AL-QUMUR al-Ittiḩādīyah al-Islāmīyah : جمهورية القمر الإتحادية الإسلامية (ar) + République islamique et fédérale des COMORES (fr)  (Moroni) Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde
CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE
UNO Member
Republic of THE CONGO  (Brazzaville)République du CONGO (fr)  (Brazzaville) President Denis Sassou-Nguesso
CONGO-KINSHASA
UNO Member
Democratic Republic of The Congo : DRC  (Kinshasa)République démocratique du CONGO (fr) + Democratic Republic of THE CONGO (en)  (Kinshasa) President Laurent Desire Kabila
EASTERN CONGO
Rebellion
Rebel Governments of EASTERN CONGO  (Goma)Gouvernements rebelles du CONGO ORIENTAL (fr) + Rebel Governments of EASTERN CONGO (en) + Mkoa wa MASHARIKI (sw) + Etúká ORIENTALE (ln)  (Goma) Ernest Wamba dia Wamba
EGYPT
UNO Member
Arab Republic of EGYPT  (Cairo)Ǧumhūriyyat MIṣR al-''Arabiyyah - جمهورية مصر العربية (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) President Hosni Mubarak
ENCLAVE OF CABINDA
RebellionExile
Cabinda Governments in Exile : Federal Republic of CABINDA  (Pointe Noire + Paris + Cabinda Rebel Zones)Kilansi kia KABINDA (kg) + República Federal do CABINDA (pt)  (Pointe-Noire + Paris + Kabinda) Commandant Antonio Luis Lopes
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
UNO Member
Republic of EQUATORIAL GUINEA  (Malabo)República de GUINEA ECUATORIAL (es) + République de GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE (fr)  (Malabo) President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
ERITREA
UNO Member
State of ERITREA  (Asmara)Hagere ERTRA : ሃገረ ኤርትራ (ti) + Dawlat IRITRĪYA : دولة إرتريا (ar) + State of ERITREA (en)  (Asmera) President Isaias Afewerki
ETHIOPIA
UNO Member
Federal Democratic Republic of ETHIOPIA  (Addis Ababa)YE-ĪTYŌṗṗYĀ Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk : የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ (am) + Federal Democratic Republic of ETHIOPIA (en)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne) President Negasso Gidada
FREE CASAMANCE
Rebellion
Movement of Democratic Forces of CASAMANCE  (Guinea-Bissau Frontier)Mouvement des forces démocratiques de CASAMANCE (fr) + CASSAMUKU (dyo)  (Frontière de la Guinée-Bissao) Father Augustin Diamacoune Senghor
GABON
UNO Member
GABONESE Republic  (Libreville)République GABONAISE (fr)  (Libreville) President Omar Bongo
GAMBIA
UNO Member
Republic of THE GAMBIA  (Banjul)Republic of THE GAMBIA (en)  (Banjul) President Yahya Jammeh
GHANA
UNO Member
Republic of GHANA  (Accra)Republic of GHANA (en)  (Accra) President Jerry Rawlings
GUINEA
UNO Member
Republic of GUINEA  (Conakry)République de GUINÉE (fr)  (Conakry) President Lansana Conte
GUINEA-BISSAU
UNO Member
Rebel Government of the Republic of GUINEA-BISSAU  (Bissau)República da GUINÉ-BISSAU (pt)  (Bissau) President Joao Bernardo Vieira
INTERAHAMWE
Rebellion
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda: ALIR  (Interahamwe)Armée pour la Libération du Rwanda : ALIR (fr)  (Interahamwé) Ignace Murwanashyaka
ISLAMIC EGYPT
Rebellion
Al-Qaeda Allied EGYPTIAN ISLAMIC Jihad Group  (Cairo)AL-JIHAD AL-ISLAMIYAH al-Misriyah : الجهاد الإسلامي المصري‎ (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) Ayman al-Zawahiri
ISLAMIC UGANDA
Rebellion
Allied Democratic Forces-National Army for the Liberation of Uganda : ADF-NALU  (Rwenzori Mountains)Allied Democratic Movement-Army : ADM-A (en) + Forces Démocratiques Alliées-Armée Nationale de Libération de l''Ouganda : ADF-NALU  (Rwenzori Mountains) Isa Lubega
ISLAMIC UNION
Rebellion
Group of THE ISLAMIC UNION  (Mogadishu)Midowga ISLAAMIGA (so) + Al-Itihaad al-ISLAMIYA : مجموعة من الاتحاد الإسلامي (ar)  (Muqdisho) Sheikh Yusuf Indha Ade
IVORY COAST
UNO Member
Republic of COTE D''IVOIRE  (Yamoussoukro + Abidjan)République de CÔTE D''IVOIRE (fr)  (Yamoussoukro + Abidjan) President Henri Konan Bedie
JIBUTI
UNO Member
Republic of JIBUTI  (Jibuti)République de DJIBOUTI (fr) + Jumhūriyyat JĪBŪTĪ : جمهورية جيبوتي (ar)  (Jibuti) President Hassan Gouled Aptidon
JUBALAND
Rebellion
JUBALAND State of Somalia  (Kismayo)Maamul Goboleedka JUBBALAND ee Soomaaliya (so) + Dowlad JUBBA : ولاية أرض جوبا في الصومال (ar)  (Kismaayo) Muhammad Siyad Hersi Morgan
KENYA
UNO Member
Republic of KENYA  (Nairobi)Jamhuri ya KENYA (sw) + Republic of KENYA (en)  (Nairobi) President Daniel Arap Moi
LESOTHO
UNO Member
Kingdom of LESOTHO [Military Assistance of Botswana and South Africa led Sadc Forces]  (Maseru)Muso oa LESOTHO (st) + Kingdom of LESOTHO (en)  (Maseru) King Letsie III
LIBERIA
UNO Member
Republic of LIBERIA [United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia-PBSO]  (Monrovia)Republic of LIBERIA (en)  (Monrovia) President Charles Taylor
LIBYA
UNO Member
Great Socialist People''s LIBYAN Arab Jamahiriya  (Tripoli)Al-Jamāhīriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah al-LĪBIYYAH aš-Šaʿbiyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-ʿUẓmā : الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى‎ (ar)  (Tarābulus) Guide Muammar Gaddafi
MADAGASCAR
UNO Member
Republic of MADAGASCAR  (Tananarive)Repoblikan''i MADAGASIKARA (mg) + République de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Antananarivo) President Didier Ratsiraka
MALAWI
UNO Member
Republic of MALAWI  (Lilongwe)Republic of MALAWI (en) + Dziko la MALAŴI (ny)  (Lilongwe) President Bakili Muluzi
MALI
UNO Member
Republic of MALI  (Bamako)République du MALI (fr)  (Bamako) President Alpha Oumar Konare
MALTA
UNO Member
Republic of MALTA  (Valletta)Repubblika ta'' Malta (mt) + Republic of MALTA (en)  (Il-Belt Valletta) President Ugo Mifsud Bonnici
MAREHAN
Rebellion
SOMALI National Front : Marehan Clan  (Garbahare)Xeer MAREEXAAN - Somali Hore ee Qaranka (so) + Marehan - SNF : المحامي ماريهان - الجبهة الوطنية الصومالية (ar)  (Garbahaarreey) Ahmed Sheikh Ali Ahmed Burale
MAURITANIA
UNO Member
Islamic Republic of MAURITANIA  (Nouakchott)Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Islāmiyyah al-MŪRĪTĀNIYYAH : الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (ar) + République islamique de MAURITANIE (fr)  (Nuwakshut) President Maaouya Ould Sid''Ahmed Taya
MAURITIUS
UNO Member
Republic of MAURITIUS  (Port Louis)Republic of MAURITIUS (en)  (Port Louis) President Cassam Uteem
MOROCCO
UNO Member
Kingdom of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Al Mamlakatu''l-MAGHRIBIYA : المملكة المغربية (ar)  (Ar-Rabat) King Hassan II
MOZAMBIQUE
UNO Member
Republic of MOZAMBIQUE  (Maputo)República de MOÇAMBIQUE (pt)  (Maputo) President Joaquim Chissano
NAMIBIA
UNO Member
Republic of NAMIBIA  (Windhoek)Republic of NAMIBIA (en)  (Windhoek) President Sam Nujoma
NIGER
UNO Member
Republic of NIGER  (Niamey)République du NIGER (fr)  (Niamey) President Ibrahim Bare Mainassara
NIGERIA
UNO Member
Federal Republic of NIGERIA  (Abuja)Federal Republic of NIGERIA (en)  (Abuja) General Abdulsalami Abubakar
OGADENIA
Rebellion
OGADEN National Liberation Front  (Ogaden)Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta OGAADEENYA (so)  (Ogaadeenya) Admiral Mohammed Omar Osman
OROMO
RebellionExile
OROMO Liberation Front  (Qoryoley)Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo : ABO (om)  (Qoryooley) Daud Ibsa Ayana
PUNTLAND
Rebellion
PUNTLAND State of Somalia  (Garoe)Goboleedka PUNTLAAND ee Soomaaliya (so) + Wilāyat ARḍ AL-BUNṭ aṣ-Ṣūmāliyyah : ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية (ar)  (Garoowe) President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
RUF
Rebellion
Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone : RUF  (Mapele)Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone : RUF (en)  (Mapele) Sam Bockarie
RWANDA
UNO Member
RWANDAN Republic : Republic of Rwanda  (Kigali)République RWANDAISE (fr) + Republika y''u RWANDA (rw)  (Kigali) President Pasteur Bizimungu
SAINT THOMAS AND PRINCE
UNO Member
Democratic Republic of SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE  (Saint Thomas)República Democrática de SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE (pt)  (São Tomé) President Miguel Trovoada
SENEGAL
UNO Member
Republic of SENEGAL  (Dakar)République du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Dakar) President Abdou Diouf
SEYCHELLES
UNO Member
Republic of SEYCHELLES  (Port Victoria)Repiblik SESEL (crs) + Republic of SEYCHELLES (en) + République des SEYCHELLES (fr)  (Port Victoria) President France-Albert Rene
SIERRA LEONE
UNO Member
Republic of SIERRA LEONE  (Freetown)Republic of SIERRA LEONE (en)  (Freetown) President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
SOMALIA
UNO Member
National Salvation Council of the Republic of SOMALIA  (Mogadishu)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALIYA (so) + Jumhūriyyat aṣ-ṢŪMĀL : جمهورية الصومال (ar)  (Muqdisho) Co-Chairman Ali Mahdi Muhammad
SOMALILAND
Rebellion
Republic of SOMALILAND  (Hargeisa)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALILAND (so) + Jumhūrīyat ṢŪMĀLILĀND : جمهورية صوماللاند (ar) + Republic of SOMALILAND (en)  (Hargeysa) President Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
SOUTH AFRICA
UNO Member
Republic of South Africa : RSA  (Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein + Johannesburg)Republic of SOUTH AFRICA (en) + Republiek van SUID-AFRIKA (af) + iRiphabhuliki yaseNINGIZIMU AFRIKA (zu) + iRiphabliki yomZANTSI AFRIKA (xh) + Rephaboliki ya AFORIKA BORWA (tn) + iRiphabhulikhi yeNINGIZIMU AFRIKA (ss) + Repabliki ya AFRIKA-BORWA (nso) + Rephaboliki ya AFRIKA BORWA (st) + iRiphabliki yeSEWULA AFRIKA (nr) + Riphabliki ra AFRIKA DZONGA (ts) + Riphabuḽiki ya AFURIKA TSHIPEMBE (ve)  (Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein + Johannesburg) President Nelson Mandela
SOUTH SUDAN
Rebellion
SUDAN People''s Liberation Movement  (Bilpham)SUDAN People''s Liberation Movement (en)  (Bilpam) Colonel John Garang de Maboir
SUDAN
UNO Member
Republic of THE SUDAN  (Khartoum)Jumhuriyat AS-SUDAN : جمهورية السودان (ar) + Republic of THE SUDAN (en)  (Al-Khartum) President Omar Al-Bashir
SWAZILAND
UNO Member
Kingdom of SWAZILAND  (Mbabane + Lobamba)Umbuso weSWATINI (ss) + Kingdom of SWAZILAND (en)  (ÉMbábáne + Lobamba) King Mswati III
TANZANIA
UNO Member
United Republic of TANZANIA  (Dar Es Salaam + Dodoma)Jamhuri ya Muungano wa TANZANIA (sw) + United Republic of TANZANIA (en)  (Dar-Es-Salaam + Dodoma) President Benjamin Mkapa
TOGO
UNO Member
TOGOLESE Republic  (Lome)République TOGOLAISE (fr)  (Lomé) President Gnassingbe Eyadema
TRANSAHARA
Rebellion
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat : SGPC  (Transaharan Zone)El-Jama''a es-Salafiyya li Da''wa wal Qital - JSDQ : الجماعة السلفية للدعوة والقتال (ar)  (Sahra) Hassan Hattab
TUNISIA
UNO Member
TUNISIAN Republic  (Tunis)Al-Jumhūriyya at-TŪNISIYYA : الجمهورية التونسية (ar)  (Tūnis) President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
UGANDA
UNO Member
Republic of UGANDA  (Kampala)Jamhuri ya UGANDA (sw) + Republic of UGANDA (en)  (Kampala) President Yoweri Museveni
UNITA
Rebellion
Democratic People''s Republic of Angola : Union for the Total Independence of Angola : UNITA  (Jamba)República Democrática Popular de Angola : União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola : UNITA (pt)  (Jamba) President Jonas Savimbi
WESTERN SAHARA
UNO Observer
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic : SADR [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Tifariti + Bir Lehlu + Camp Laayoune)Al-Jumhūrīyya al-`Arabīyya aṣ-ṢAḥRĀWĪYYA ad-Dīmuqrātīyya : الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (ar) + República Árabe Saharaui Democrática : RASD (es)  (Tifariti + Bir Lahlou + Mukhayam Laâyoune) President Mohamed Abdelaziz
ZAMBIA
UNO Member
Republic of ZAMBIA  (Lusaka)Republic of ZAMBIA (en)  (Lusaka) President Frederick Chiluba
ZIMBABWE
UNO Member
Republic of ZIMBABWE  (Harare)Republic of ZIMBABWE (en)  (Harare) President Robert Mugabe

77 Polities


Rebel Entities & Governments in Exile


ACHOLILAND
Rebellion
Lord''s Resistance Army in the Districts of Acholiland : LRA  (Gulu)Lord''s Resistance Army : LRA (en)  (Gulu) Joseph Kony
AFARS
RebellionExile
Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy : FRUD in exile  (Sanaa)Front pour la Restauration de l''Unité et de la Démocratie : FRUD (fr) + FRUD : الجبهة من أجل استعادة الوحدة والديمقراطية (ar) + QAFAR Jumhuri : عفار (aa)  (Sana''a) President Ahmed Dini
AKOBO
Rebellion
AKOBO County  (Akobo)AKOBO County  (Akobo)
ANJOUAN
Rebellion
State of ANJOUAN  (Mutsamudu)État d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Dawlat NZWANI : حالة أنجوان (ar) + Jimbo la NDZUWANI (wni)  (Mutsamudu) President Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim
AZAWAD
Rebellion
United Movements and Fronts of Azawad : UMFA  (Azawad Zones)Fronts et Mouvements Unis de l''AZAWAD : FMUA (fr) + AZAWD : ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴰⴷ (taq)  (Azawad) Iyad ag Ghaly
BEJA AND RASHAIDA
Rebellion
Beja and Rashaida Eastern Front : EASTERN SUDAN  (Haiya)Al-Jabhat ash-Sharqiyat li BAJA WA RASHAYDA : الجبهة الشرقية لبيجا ورشايدة (ar) + BEDAWIYE-RASHAYDA : بدوي رشايدة (bej)  (Hayya) Musa Mohamed Ahmed
BIOKO ISLAND
Rebellion
Movement for the Self-Determination of BIOKO ISLAND  (Rebola)Movimiento para la Auto-determinación de la Isla de Bioko : MAIB (es)  (Rebola) Honorato Maho Chuaha
BURUNDI HUTU
Rebellion
HUTU Rebellion of Burundi  (Bujumbura)Forces Nationales de Libération : FNL (fr) + ABAHUTU Burundi (rn)  (Bujumbura) Agathon Rwasa
CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE
RebellionExile
Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front  (Caprivi Zipfel)Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front (en)  (Caprivi Zipfel) Mishake Muyongo
CENTRAL SOMALIA
Rebellion
Somali National Alliance : Hawiye Warlordships of MOGADISHU  (Mogadishu)MUQDISHO  (Muqdisho) Hussein Muhammad Farah Aydid
COPTS
Exile
Coptic Government in Exile : COPTIC Pharaonic Republic  (Langen)Piamahte ''Nrem''Ymi QEN Pimansemmo (cop)  (Langen) Fayez Nagib
EAST EQUATORIA
Rebellion
EAST EQUATORIA State  (Kapoeta)Wilayah SHARQ AL-ISTIWA''IYAH : ولايات شرق الاستوائية (ar) + EAST EQUATORIA State (en)  (Kapoita)
EASTERN CONGO
Rebellion
Rebel Governments of EASTERN CONGO  (Goma)Gouvernements rebelles du CONGO ORIENTAL (fr) + Rebel Governments of EASTERN CONGO (en) + Mkoa wa MASHARIKI (sw) + Etúká ORIENTALE (ln)  (Goma) Ernest Wamba dia Wamba
ENCLAVE OF CABINDA
RebellionExile
Cabinda Governments in Exile : Federal Republic of CABINDA  (Pointe Noire + Paris + Cabinda Rebel Zones)Kilansi kia KABINDA (kg) + República Federal do CABINDA (pt)  (Pointe-Noire + Paris + Kabinda) Commandant Antonio Luis Lopes
ETHIOPIAN CROWN
Exile
Crown Council of ETHIOPIA  (Washington-District of Columbia)Nəgusä Nägäst ye-ITHIOPIYA : ንጉሠ ነገሥት (am)  (Washington-District of Columbia) Prince Ermias Sahle-Selassie
FREE CASAMANCE
Rebellion
Movement of Democratic Forces of CASAMANCE  (Guinea-Bissau Frontier)Mouvement des forces démocratiques de CASAMANCE (fr) + CASSAMUKU (dyo)  (Frontière de la Guinée-Bissao) Father Augustin Diamacoune Senghor
FREE ERITREA
Exile
ERITREAN Liberation Front  (Khartoum)Jabhat at-Tahrir al-ERTRY : جبهة التحرير الإريترية (ar) + ERTRA : የኤርትራ ነጻ አውጭ ግንባር (ti) + Eritrean Liberation Front : ELF (en) + Fronte di Liberazione Eritreo : FLE (it)  (Al-Khartum) Abdalla Idriss
HARATIN
Exile
African Liberation Forces of Mauritania : ALFM  (Dakar + Paris)Forces de Libération Africaines de Mauritanie : FLAM (fr)  (Dakar + Paris) President Samba Thiam
ILEMI CENTRAL AREA
Rebellion
Pro-Ethiopian Dassanetch Controlled CENTRAL ILEMI Area  (Liwan)CENTRAL ILEMI Area (en) + Eradhi ILEMI AL-WASTA : المنطقة الوسطى الابتدائية (ar)  (Liwan) Dassanetch Rebels
INTERAHAMWE
Rebellion
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda: ALIR  (Interahamwe)Armée pour la Libération du Rwanda : ALIR (fr)  (Interahamwé) Ignace Murwanashyaka
ISLAMIC EGYPT
Rebellion
Al-Qaeda Allied EGYPTIAN ISLAMIC Jihad Group  (Cairo)AL-JIHAD AL-ISLAMIYAH al-Misriyah : الجهاد الإسلامي المصري‎ (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) Ayman al-Zawahiri
ISLAMIC GROUP
Rebellion
ISLAMIC GROUP for a Islamic State in Egypt  (New York City + Cairo)AL-GAMA''A AL-ISLAMIYA : Al-Jamāʕaħ Al-''Islāmiyyaħ  (New York City + Al-Qahirah) (Omar Abdel-Rahman the Blind Sheikh)
ISLAMIC UGANDA
Rebellion
Allied Democratic Forces-National Army for the Liberation of Uganda : ADF-NALU  (Rwenzori Mountains)Allied Democratic Movement-Army : ADM-A (en) + Forces Démocratiques Alliées-Armée Nationale de Libération de l''Ouganda : ADF-NALU  (Rwenzori Mountains) Isa Lubega
ISLAMIC UNION
Rebellion
Group of THE ISLAMIC UNION  (Mogadishu)Midowga ISLAAMIGA (so) + Al-Itihaad al-ISLAMIYA : مجموعة من الاتحاد الإسلامي (ar)  (Muqdisho) Sheikh Yusuf Indha Ade
JUBALAND
Rebellion
JUBALAND State of Somalia  (Kismayo)Maamul Goboleedka JUBBALAND ee Soomaaliya (so) + Dowlad JUBBA : ولاية أرض جوبا في الصومال (ar)  (Kismaayo) Muhammad Siyad Hersi Morgan
JUNGOLI
Rebellion
JUNGOLI State  (Bor)Wilayah JUNQALI : ولاية جونقلي (ar) + JUNGOLI State (en)  (Bor)
MAREHAN
Rebellion
SOMALI National Front : Marehan Clan  (Garbahare)Xeer MAREEXAAN - Somali Hore ee Qaranka (so) + Marehan - SNF : المحامي ماريهان - الجبهة الوطنية الصومالية (ar)  (Garbahaarreey) Ahmed Sheikh Ali Ahmed Burale
NEW GABON
Exile
Gabonese Coalition of Refusal and National Salute : NEW GABON  (West Orange)Bongo Doit Partir-Pour la Construction d''un GABON NOUVEAU : Coalition gabonaise du Refus et de Salut National (fr)  (West Orange) Daniel Mengara
NIGER DELTA
Exile
Ijaw Council of NIGER DELTA  (Kaima)Ijaw Council of NIGER DELTA (en)  (Kaima) Mujahid Dokubo-Asari
NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL
Rebellion
NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL State  (Aweil)Wilayah SHAMAL BAHR AL-GHAZAL : ولاية شمال بحر الغزال (ar) + NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL State (en)  (Uwayl)
NORTH CONGO
Rebellion
Movement for the Liberation of Congo : MLC  (Gbadolite)Mouvement de Libération du Congo : MLC (fr)  (Gbadolite) Jean-Pierre Bemba
OGADENIA
Rebellion
OGADEN National Liberation Front  (Ogaden)Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta OGAADEENYA (so)  (Ogaadeenya) Admiral Mohammed Omar Osman
OGONILAND
Rebellion
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People : Kingdoms of OGONILAND  (Bori)Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People : Kingdoms of OGONILAND (en)  (Bori) King Godwin Giniwa
OROMO
RebellionExile
OROMO Liberation Front  (Qoryoley)Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo : ABO (om)  (Qoryooley) Daud Ibsa Ayana
PUNTLAND
Rebellion
PUNTLAND State of Somalia  (Garoe)Goboleedka PUNTLAAND ee Soomaaliya (so) + Wilāyat ARḍ AL-BUNṭ aṣ-Ṣūmāliyyah : ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية (ar)  (Garoowe) President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
QIBLA AND PAGAD
Rebellion
Qibla and People Against Gangsterism and Drugs : PAGAD  (Cape Town)Qibla and People Against Gangsterism and Drugs : PAGAD (en)  (Cape Town) Abdus Salaam Ebrahim
RAHANWEYN
Rebellion
RAHANWEYN Resistance Army  (Baidoa)Ciidamada Difaaca RAHANWAYN (so) + Al-Deva RAHANWIN : الدفاع الرحانوين (ar)  (Baydhabo) Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud
REHOBOTH BASTERLAND
Rebellion
Captains Council of REHOBOTH BASTERS  (Rehoboth)REHOBOTH BASTER Raad (af) + REHOBOTH BASTER Captain Council (en) + REHOBOTH BAASTER Kapiteins Raad (nl)  (Rehoboth) Dap Izaaks
RUF
Rebellion
Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone : RUF  (Mapele)Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone : RUF (en)  (Mapele) Sam Bockarie
SANWI
Exile
Provisional SANWI Government in Exile  (Accra)Provisional SANWI Government in Exile (en) + Gouvernement SANWI provisoire en Exil (fr) + Ohene SANWI (any)  (Accra) King Amon Ndouffou IV
SHABAAB
Rebellion
SHABAAB Muslim Youth Organisation  (Maiduguri)SHABAAB Muslim Youth Organisation (en)  (Maiduguri) Mallam Lawal
SOMALI BANTU
Rebellion
Somali African Muke Organization : SAMO  (Jarer Weyn)Somali Asal Muki Organization : SAMO (so)  (Jareerweyne) Mohamed Ramadan Arbow
SOMALILAND
Rebellion
Republic of SOMALILAND  (Hargeisa)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALILAND (so) + Jumhūrīyat ṢŪMĀLILĀND : جمهورية صوماللاند (ar) + Republic of SOMALILAND (en)  (Hargeysa) President Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
SOUTH SUDAN
Rebellion
SUDAN People''s Liberation Movement  (Bilpham)SUDAN People''s Liberation Movement (en)  (Bilpam) Colonel John Garang de Maboir
SOUTHERN SUDAN
Rebellion
Coordinating Council of the SOUTHERN STATES  (Juba)Coordinating Council of the SOUTHERN STATES (en) + Majlis JANOB AL-WILAYAT : مجلس تنسيق الولايات الجنوبية (ar)  (Juba) Riek Machar
TAMAZGHA
Exile
World AMAZIGH Congress : World Organization of the Berber People  (Paris)Agraw Amaḍlan Amaziɣ : ⴰⴳⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵎⴰⴹⵍⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ (ber) + Congrès Mondial Amazigh : CMA (fr)  (Paris) Belkacem Lounes
TRANSAHARA
Rebellion
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat : SGPC  (Transaharan Zone)El-Jama''a es-Salafiyya li Da''wa wal Qital - JSDQ : الجماعة السلفية للدعوة والقتال (ar)  (Sahra) Hassan Hattab
UNITA
Rebellion
Democratic People''s Republic of Angola : Union for the Total Independence of Angola : UNITA  (Jamba)República Democrática Popular de Angola : União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola : UNITA (pt)  (Jamba) President Jonas Savimbi
WARRAP
Rebellion
WARRAP State  (Warrap + Kuajok)Wilayah WARAB : ولاية وراب (ar) + WARAP State (en)  (Warap + Kwajok)

49 Rebel Entities


Protectorates & Mandates


ANGOLA
UNO Member
Republic of ANGOLA [United Nations Observer Mission in Angola-MONUA]  (Luanda)República de ANGOLA (pt)  (Luanda)
BISSAU CITY
BISSAU Autonomous Sector  (Bissau)Sector Autónomo de BISSAU (pt)  (Bissau)
CENTRAL-AFRICA
UNO Member
Central African Republic : CAR [United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic-MINURCA]  (Bangui)République CENTRAFRICAINE (fr) + Ködörösêse tî BÊAFRÎKA (sg)  (Bangui)
LAGOUIRA
LAGOUIRA Territory  (Lagouira + Guerguerat)Territorio de LA GÜERA (es) + Iqlim LAGHWIRA : إقليم لاغويرا (ar) + Territoire de LAGOUIRA (fr)  (Lagouira + Guergarat)
LESOTHO
UNO Member
Kingdom of LESOTHO [Military Assistance of Botswana and South Africa led Sadc Forces]  (Maseru)Muso oa LESOTHO (st) + Kingdom of LESOTHO (en)  (Maseru)
LIBERIA
UNO Member
Republic of LIBERIA [United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia-PBSO]  (Monrovia)Republic of LIBERIA (en)  (Monrovia)
MINURSO
Western Sahara Restricted Area : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO  (Umm Dreiga + Auserd)Zone restreinte du Sahara Occidental : Mission des Nations-Unies pour l''Organisation d''un Référendum au Sahara Occidental-MINURSO (fr) + Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental : MINURSO (es) + Baethat al''-Umam al-Muttahidat li-Tanzim Aistifta'' fi al-Sahra'' al-Gharbia : MINURSO - بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية (ar) + United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara : MINURSO (en)  (Oum Dreyga + Awsard)
MOROCCAN SAHARA
Southern Provinces of the MOROCCAN SAHARA [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Laayoune + Dakhla)Wilayat AS-ṢAḥRĀ'' AL-MAGHRIBIYYA : محافظات الصحراء المغربية (ar)  (Laâyoune + Ad-Dakhla)
POLISARIO
Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia El-Hamra and Rio de Oro : POLISARIO  (Camp Rabouni)Ŷabhet el-Šaebiyah el-Tahrir Saquiyah El-Hamra'' O-Wodi Al-Daheb - AL-BOLISARIU : الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب‎ - البوليساريو (ar) + Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro : POLISARIO (es)  (Rabouni)
WESTERN SAHARA
UNO Observer
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic : SADR [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Tifariti + Bir Lehlu + Camp Laayoune)Al-Jumhūrīyya al-`Arabīyya aṣ-ṢAḥRĀWĪYYA ad-Dīmuqrātīyya : الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (ar) + República Árabe Saharaui Democrática : RASD (es)  (Tifariti + Bir Lahlou + Mukhayam Laâyoune)

10 Protected Entities


Federated or Constituent Polities


ABIA
ABIA State  (Umuahia)ABIA State (en)  (Umuahia)
ADAMAWA
ADAMAWA State  (Yola)ADAMAWA State (en)  (Yola)
ADDIS ABABA
Federal Capital District of ADDIS ABABA  (Addis Ababa)ADDIS ABEBA Ras Gez Astedader : አዲስ አበባ (am) + Federal Capital District of ADDIS ABABA (en) + FINFINNEE (om)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne)
AFAR
AFAR National Regional State  (Semera + Asaita)QAFAR Rakaakayih Doolata : አፋር : منطقة عفار (aa) + AFARI Kilili : አፋር ክልል (am) + AFAR Region (en)  (Samara + Aysaqiita)
AKWA IBOM
AKWA IBOM State  (Uyo)AKWA IBOM State (en)  (Uyo)
AMHARA
AMHARA National Regional State  (Bahir Dar)AMHARA Kilili : አማራ ክልል (am) + AMHARA Region (en)  (Baher Dar)
ANAMBRA
ANAMBRA State  (Awka)ANAMBRA State (en)  (Awka)
BAHR EL-JEBEL
BAHR EL-JEBEL State  (Juba)Wilayah BAHR-AL-JABAL : ولاية بحر الجبل (ar) + BAHR EL-JEBEL State (en)  (Juba)
BAUCHI
BAUCHI State  (Bauchi)BAUCHI State (en)  (Bauchi)
BAYELSA
BAYELSA State  (Yenagoa)BAYELSA State (en)  (Yenagoa)
BENISHANGUL-GUMUZ
BENISHANGUL-GUMUZ National Regional State  (Asosa)BENSHANGUL-GUMAZ Kilili : ቤንሻንጉል-ጉምዝ ክልል ክልል (am) + BENISHANGUL-GUMUZ Region (en)  (Āsosa)
BENUE
BENUE State  (Makurdi)BENUE State (en)  (Makurdi)
BLUE NILE
BLUE NILE State  (Damazin)Wilayah AN-NIL AL-AZRAQ : ولاية النيل الأزرق (ar) + BLUE NILE State (en)  (Ad-Damazin)
BORNO
BORNO State  (Maiduguri)BORNO State (en)  (Maiduguri)
CANARY ISLANDS
Autonomous Community of THE CANARY ISLANDS  (Santa Cruz of Tenerife + Las Palmas of Great Canary)Comunidad Autónoma de CANARIAS (es)  (Santa Cruz de Tenerife + Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
CENTRAL KENYA
CENTRAL Province  (Nyeri)CENTRAL Province (en) + Mkoa wa KATI (sw)  (Nyeri)
CEUTA
Autonomous City of CEUTA  (Ceuta)Ciudad Autónoma de CEUTA (es)  (Ceuta)
COAST
COAST Province  (Mombasa)COAST Province (en) + Mkoa wa PWANI (sw)  (Mombasa)
CROSS RIVER
CROSS RIVER State  (Calabar)CROSS RIVER State (en)  (Calabar)
DELTA
DELTA State  (Asaba)DELTA State (en)  (Asaba)
DIRE DAWA
DIRE DAWA Chartered City  (Dire Dawa)DIRE DAWA Astedader Akabibi : ድሬ ዳዋ አስማተኛ አፅቢቢ (am) + DIRE DAWA Chartered City (en) + DIRRE DHAWAA (om) + DIR DHABE (so)  (Dire Dawa)
EAST EQUATORIA
Rebellion
EAST EQUATORIA State  (Kapoeta)Wilayah SHARQ AL-ISTIWA''IYAH : ولايات شرق الاستوائية (ar) + EAST EQUATORIA State (en)  (Kapoita)
EASTERN CAPE
EASTERN CAPE Province  (Bisho)IPhondo yaMpuma-Koloni : EMPUMA KOLONI (xh) + Provinsie OOS-KAAP (af) + EASTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Bisho)
EASTERN KENYA
EASTERN Province  (Embu)EASTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa MASHARIKI (sw)  (Embu)
EASTERN SIERRA LEONE
EASTERN Province  (Kenema)EASTERN Province (en)  (Kenema)
EBONYI
EBONYI State  (Abakaliki)EBONYI State (en)  (Abakaliki)
EDO
EDO State  (Benin City)EDO State (en)  (Benin City)
EKITI
EKITI State  (Ado Ekiti)EKITI State (en)  (Ado Ekiti)
ENUGU
ENUGU State  (Enugu)ENUGU State (en)  (Enugu)
FREE STATE
FREE STATE Province  (Bloemfontein)Porofensi ya FOREISTATA (st) + VRYSTAAT Provinsie (af) + IPhondo ya FOREISTATA (xh) + FREE STATE Province (en)  (Bloemfontein)
GAMBELA
GAMBELA Peoples Regional State  (Gambela)GAMBĒLA Hizbochi Kilili : ጋምቤላ ሕዝቦች ክልል (am) + GAMBELA People''s Region (en)  (Gambëla)
GAUTENG
GAUTENG Province  (Johannesburg)Provinsie GAUTENG (af) + Izifundazwe IGAUTENG (zu) + Porofensi tsa GAUTENG (st) + GAUTENG Province (en)  (Johannesburg)
GEDAREF
GEDAREF State  (Gedaref)Wilayah AL-QADARIF : ولاية القضارف، (ar) + GEDARIF State (en)  (Al-Qadarif)
GEZIRA
GEZIRA State  (Wad Medani)Wilayah AL-JAZIRAH : ولاية الجزيرة (ar) + EL GEZIRA State (en)  (Wad Madani)
GOMBE
GOMBE State  (Gombe)GOMBE State (en)  (Gombe)
GREAT COMORO
Federated State of GREAT COMORO  (Moroni)État fédéré de la GRANDE COMORE (fr) + Dawlat AM-QOMOR AL-KUBRAA : دولت القمر الكبرى (ar) + Dola wa NGAZIDJA (zdj)  (Moroni)
HARAR
HARARI People''s Regional State  (Harar)HARARE : هراري‎ (har) + HĀRERI Hizbochi Kilili : የሐረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል (am) + HARARI People''s Region (en)  (Hārer)
IMO
IMO State  (Owerri)IMO State (en)  (Owerri)
JIGAWA
JIGAWA State  (Dutse)JIGAWA State (en)  (Dutse)
JUNGOLI
Rebellion
JUNGOLI State  (Bor)Wilayah JUNQALI : ولاية جونقلي (ar) + JUNGOLI State (en)  (Bor)
KADUNA
KADUNA State  (Kaduna)KADUNA State (en)  (Kaduna)
KANO
KANO State  (Kano)KANO State (en)  (Kano)
KASSALA
KASSALA State  (Kassala)Wilayah KASSALA : ولاية كسلا (ar) + KASSALA State (en)  (Kassala)
KATSINA
KATSINA State  (Katsina)KATSINA State (en)  (Katsina)
KEBBI
KEBBI State  (Birnin Kebbi)KEBBI State (en)  (Birnin Kebbi)
KHARTOUM
KHARTOUM State  (Khartoum)Wilayah AL-KHARTUM : ولاية الخرطوم (ar) + KHARTOUM State (en)  (Al-Khartum)
KOGI
KOGI State  (Lokoja)KOGI State (en)  (Lokoja)
KWARA
KWARA State  (Ilorin)KWARA State (en)  (Ilorin)
KWAZULU-NATAL
KWAZULU-NATAL Province  (Pietermaritzburg + Ulundi)Isifundazwe saKWAZULU-NATAL (zu) + Province of KWAZULU-NATAL (en)  (Pietermaritzburg + Ulundi)
LAGOS
LAGOS State  (Ikeja)LAGOS State (en)  (Ikeja)
LAKES
LAKES State  (Rumbek)Wilayah AL-BUHAYRAT : ولاية آل البحيرات (ar) + BUHEYRAT State (en)  (Rumbek)
MELILLA
Autonomous City of MELILLA  (Melilla)Ciudad Autónoma de MELILLA (es)  (Melilla)
MOHELI
Federated Island of MOHELI  (Fomboni)Île fédérée de MOHÉLI (fr) + Jezirah MWALI : جزيرة موهيلي (ar) + Kisiwa cha MWALI (wlc)  (Fomboni)
MPUMALANGA
MPUMALANGA Province  (Nelspruit)Sifundza seMPUMALANGA (ss) + Isifundazwe saseMPUMALANGA (zu) + Sifundza ye MPUMALANGA (nr) + Provinsie MPUMALANGA (af) + MPUMALANGA Province (en)  (Nelspruit)
NAIROBI AREA
NAIROBI AREA Province  (Nairobi)NAIROBI AREA Province (en) + Mkoa wa NAIROBI (sw)  (Nairobi)
NASARAWA
NASARAWA State  (Lafia)NASARAWA State (en)  (Lafia)
NIGER-MINNA
NIGER State  (Minna)NIGER State (en)  (Minna)
NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL
Rebellion
NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL State  (Aweil)Wilayah SHAMAL BAHR AL-GHAZAL : ولاية شمال بحر الغزال (ar) + NORTH BAHR EL GHAZAL State (en)  (Uwayl)
NORTH DARFUR
NORTH DARFUR State  (El Fasher)Wilayat SHAMAL DAR FUR : ولاية شمال دارفور (ar) + NORTH DARFUR State (en)  (Al-Fashir)
NORTH EASTERN KENYA
NORTH EASTERN Province  (Garissa)NORTH EASTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa KASKAZINI-MASHARIKI (sw)  (Garissa)
NORTH KORDOFAN
NORTH KORDOFAN State  (El Obeid)Wilayah SHAMAL KURDUFUN : ولاية شمال كردفان (ar) + NORTH KORDOFAN State (en)  (Al-Ubayyid)
NORTH-WEST
NORTH-WEST Province  (Mafikeng)Diporofinsi ya BOKONE BOPHIRIMA (tn) + NOORDWES Provinsie (af) + NORTH-WEST Province (en)  (Mafikeng)
NORTHERN
NORTHERN Province  (Pietersburg)NORTHERN Province (en)  (Pietersburg)
NORTHERN CAPE
NORTHERN CAPE Province  (Kimberley)Provinsie NOORD-KAAP (af) + Diporofinsi ya KAPA BOKONE (tn) + uPhondo yaseMNTLA-KOLONI (xh) + NORTHERN CAPE Province (en)  (Kimberley)
NORTHERN SIERRA LEONE
NORTHERN Province  (Makeni)NORTHERN Province (en)  (Makeni)
NYANZA
NYANZA Province  (Kisumu)NYANZA Province (en) + Mkoa wa NYANZA (sw)  (Kisumu)
OGUN
OGUN State  (Abeokuta)OGUN State (en) + Ìpínlẹ̀ ÒGÙN (yo)  (Abeokuta)
ONDO
ONDO State  (Akure)ONDO State (en)  (Akure)
OROMIA
OROMIA National Regional State  (Nazret + Addis Ababa)OROMIYAA (om) + OROMIYA Kilili : ኦሮሚያ ክልል (am) + OROMIA Region (en)  (Adaamaa + Addis Abeba-Finfinne)
OSUN
OSUN State  (Oshogbo)OSUN State (en)  (Osogbo)
OYO
OYO State  (Ibadan)OYO State (en)  (Ibadan)
PLATEAU
PLATEAU State  (Jos)PLATEAU State (en)  (Jos)
RED SEA
RED SEA State  (Port Sudan)Wilayah AL-BAHR AL-AHMAR : ولاية البحر الأحمر (ar) + RED SEA State (en)  (Bur Sudan)
RIFT VALLEY
RIFT VALLEY Province  (Nakuru)RIFT VALLEY Province (en) + Mkoa wa BONDE LA UFA (sw)  (Nakuru)
RIVER NILE
RIVER NILE State  (Damer)Wilayah NAHR AN-NIL : ولاية نهر النيل (ar) + RIVER NILE State (en)  (Ad-Damir)
RIVERS
RIVERS State  (Port Harcourt)RIVERS State (en)  (Port Harcourt)
SENNAR
SENNAR State  (Sinja + Sennar)Wilayah SANNAR : ولاية سنار (ar) + SENNAR State (en)  (Sinjah + Sannar)
SHAMALIYAH
NORTHERN State : Shamaliyah State  (Dongola)Wilayah ASH-SHAMALIYAH : الولاية الشمالية (ar) + ASH-SHAMALIYAH State (en)  (Dunqulah)
SOKOTO
SOKOTO State  (Sokoto)SOKOTO State (en)  (Sokoto)
SOMALI
Ethiopian Somali State : Regional State of SOMALIA  (Jijiga)Gobolka SOOMAALIDA (so) + Ad-Dawlat al-''Ithyubiat al-Mintaqat as-SUMALIAT‎ : الدولة الاثيوبية المنطقة الصومالية (ar) + SOMALĒ Kilili : ሶማሌ ክልል (am) + SOMALI Region (en)  (Jigjiga)
SOUTH DARFUR
SOUTH DARFUR State  (Nyala)Wilayah JANUB DARFUR : ولاية جنوب دارفور (ar) + SOUTH DARFUR State (en)  (Nyala)
SOUTH KORDOFAN
SOUTH KORDOFAN State  (Kadogli)Wilayah JANUB KURDUFUN : ولاية جنوب كردفان (ar) + SOUTH KORDOFAN State (en)  (Kaduqli)
SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
Southern Ethiopian Peoples : Southern Nations Nationalities and People''s Region : SNNPR  (Awasa)YÄ-DÄBUB BƏHEROČČ BƏHERESÄBOČČ-ƏNNA HƏZBOČČ Kilili : የደቡብ ብሔር ብሔረሰቦችና ህዝቦች ክልል (am) + Southern Nations Nationalities and People''s Region : SNNPR (en)  (Hawassa)
SOUTHERN SIERRALEONE
SOUTHERN Province  (Bo Town)SOUTHERN Province (en)  (Bo)
TANGANYIKA
Regions of TANGANYIKA  (Dar Es Salaam + Dodoma)Wilayat ya TANGANYIKA (sw) + Regions of TANGANYIKA (en)  (Dar-Es-Salaam + Dodoma)
TARABA
TARABA State  (Jalingo)TARABA State (en)  (Jalingo)
TIGRE
TIGRE National Regional State  (Mekele)Bəh̩erawi Kəllelawi Mängəśti TƏGRAY : ብሄራዊ ክልላዊ መንግስቲ ትግራይ (ti) + TIGRĀY Kilili : ትግራይ ክልል (am) + TIGRAY National Regional State (en)  (Mek''elē)
UNITY
UNITY State  (Bantiu)Wilayah AL-WAHDAH : ولاية الوحدة (ar) + WAHDAH State (en)  (Bentiu)
UPPER NILE
UPPER NILE State  (Malakal)Wilayah A''ALI AN-NIL : ولاية أعالي النيل (ar) + UPPER NILE State (en)  (Malakal)
WARRAP
Rebellion
WARRAP State  (Warrap + Kuajok)Wilayah WARAB : ولاية وراب (ar) + WARAP State (en)  (Warap + Kwajok)
WEST DARFUR
WEST DARFUR State  (El Geneina)Wilayah GHARB DARFUR : ولايات غرب دارفور (ar) + WEST DARFUR State (en)  (Al-Junaynah)
WEST EQUATORIA
WEST EQUATORIA State  (Yambio)WEST EQUATORIA State (en)  (Yambio)
WEST KORDOFAN
WEST KORDOFAN State  (Al Fula + Nuhud)Wilayah GHARB KURDUFUN : ولاية غرب كردفان (ar) + SOUTH KORDOFAN (en)  (Al-Fulah + An-Nuhud)
WESTERN BAHR EL GHAZAL
WESTERN BAHR EL GHAZAL State  (Wau)Wilayat GHARB BAHR AL-GHAZAL : ولاية غرب بحر الغزال (ar) + WESTERN BAHR EL GHAZAL State (en)  (Wāw)
WESTERN CAPE
WESTERN CAPE Province  (Cape Town)Provinsie WES-KAAP (af) + IPhondo yaNtshona-Koloni : INTSHONA KOLONI (xh) + WESTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Cape Town)
WESTERN KENYA
WESTERN Province  (Kakamega)WESTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa MAGHARIBI (sw)  (Kakamega)
WHITE NILE
WHITE NILE State  (Rabak)Wilayah AN-NIL AL-ABYAD : ولاية النيل الأبيض (ar) + WHITE NILE State (en)  (Rabak)
YOBE
YOBE State  (Damaturu)YOBE State (en)  (Damaturu)
ZAMFARA
ZAMFARA State  (Gusau)ZAMFARA State (en)  (Gusau)

99 Federated or Constituent Polities


Territories & Dependencies


ABUJA
ABUJA Capital Territory  (Abuja)ABUJA Capital Territory (en)  (Abuja)
AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS
AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS Dependencies  (Raphael)AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS Dependencies (en)  (Raphael)
AZORES
AZORES Autonomous Region  (Ponta Delgada + Horta + Angra)Região Autónoma dos AÇORES (pt)  (Ponta Delgada + Horta + Angra do Heroísmo)
BADME
BADME Zone  (Badme)BADME  (Badme)
BISSAU CITY
BISSAU Autonomous Sector  (Bissau)Sector Autónomo de BISSAU (pt)  (Bissau)
CEUTA AND MELILLA
Autonomous Cities in North Africa : CEUTA AND MELILLA  (Ceuta + Melilla)Ciudades Autónomas del África Septentrional : CEUTA Y MELILLA (es)  (Ceuta + Melilla)
CEUTA BORDER FENCE
Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)Zona neutral de la VALLA DE CEUTA (es)  (Valla de Ceuta)
DARWISHLAND
Disputed Dulbahante Territory of DARWISHLAND  (Las Anod)Xeer Duulbaahaante DARWIISHLAAND (so) + Dolbahante DARAWISH : إقليم الدراويش (ar)  (Laascaanood)
GOZO
Semi-Autonomous Region of GOZO  (Victoria-Rabat)Reġjun GHAWDEX (mt) + Region of GOZO (en)  (Ir-Rabat)
HIRANLAND
Clans of HIRANLAND Region  (Beledweyn)Gobolka HIIRAAN (so) + Al-Mintaqah HERAN : منطقة هيران (ar)  (Beledweyne)
ILEMI TRIANGLE
Kenyan Administration of the Sudanese Territory of ILEMI TRIANGLE  (Ilemi)Territory of ILEMI TRIANGLE (en) + Ukanda ya ILEMI (sw) + Eradi ILEMI : أراضي يليمي (ar)  (Llemi)
LAGOUIRA
LAGOUIRA Territory  (Lagouira + Guerguerat)Territorio de LA GÜERA (es) + Iqlim LAGHWIRA : إقليم لاغويرا (ar) + Territoire de LAGOUIRA (fr)  (Lagouira + Guergarat)
MADEIRA
MADEIRA Autonomous Region  (Funchal)Região Autónoma da MADEIRA (pt)  (Funchal)
MAYOTTE
Territorial Collectivity of MAYOTTE  (Mamoutzou)Collectivité territoriale de MAYOTTE (fr)  (Mamoudzou)
MELILLA BORDER FENCE
Neutral Zone of MELILLA BORDER FENCE  (Melilla Border Fence)Zona neutral de la VALLA DE MELILLA (es)  (Valla de Melilla)
MINURSO
Western Sahara Restricted Area : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO  (Umm Dreiga + Auserd)Zone restreinte du Sahara Occidental : Mission des Nations-Unies pour l''Organisation d''un Référendum au Sahara Occidental-MINURSO (fr) + Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental : MINURSO (es) + Baethat al''-Umam al-Muttahidat li-Tanzim Aistifta'' fi al-Sahra'' al-Gharbia : MINURSO - بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية (ar) + United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara : MINURSO (en)  (Oum Dreyga + Awsard)
MOROCCAN SAHARA
Southern Provinces of the MOROCCAN SAHARA [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Laayoune + Dakhla)Wilayat AS-ṢAḥRĀ'' AL-MAGHRIBIYYA : محافظات الصحراء المغربية (ar)  (Laâyoune + Ad-Dakhla)
OUTER ISLANDS OF SEYCHELLES
OUTER ISLANDS District : Coralline Islands  (Coetivy)Distrikt ZIL ELWANNYEN SESEL (crs) + OUTER ISLANDS District (en) + District des ÎLES ÉLOIGNÉES (fr)  (Coëtivy)
PARSLEY ISLAND
Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Tura)Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Tura)
POLISARIO
Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia El-Hamra and Rio de Oro : POLISARIO  (Camp Rabouni)Ŷabhet el-Šaebiyah el-Tahrir Saquiyah El-Hamra'' O-Wodi Al-Daheb - AL-BOLISARIU : الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب‎ - البوليساريو (ar) + Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro : POLISARIO (es)  (Rabouni)
REUNION
French Overseas Region of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Région d''outre-mer française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
RODRIGUES ISLAND
RODRIGUES ISLAND Council  (Port Mathurin)RODRIGUES ISLAND Council (en)  (Port Mathurin)
SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES
British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Jamestown)British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Jamestown)
SAINT HELENA DOMAINS
French Domains on SAINT HELENA  (Longwood House)Domaines français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAYA DE MALHA
Micronation
Principality of SAYA DE MALHA  (Saya of Malha)Principauté de SAYA DE MALHA (fr) + Principality of SAYA DE MALHA (en)  (Saya de Malha)
SINAI PENINSULA
Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones  (Rome + El Gorah + Sharm El-Sheikh)Multinational Force and Observers : MFO (en) + Al-Quat Mutaeadidat al-Jinsiat wal Muraqibun fi SINA'' : القوة متعددة الجنسيات والمراقبون (ar)  (Roma + El Gorah + Sharm Ash-Shaykh)
SINAI ZONE D
Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D  (Zone D)Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D (en) + MIZRAHI SINAI : מזרח סיני (he) + SINA'' ASH-SHARQ : شرق سيناء (ar)  (Zone D)
SOMALIAN BORDER
Ethiopian Occupied Territories on the SOMALIAN BORDER  (Somalian Border)Ethiopian Occupied Territories on the SOMALIAN BORDER  (Somalian Border)
TONG-TONG TAO
Unclaimed Territory of TONG-TONG TAO  (Tong-Tong + Tao)Territoire de TONG-TONG TAO (fr)  (Tong-Tong + Tao)
TSERONA
Sub-Region of TSERONA  (Tserona)Ni''usi Zoba TS''ERONA : ንኡስ ዞባ ጸሮና (ti) + TSERONA Sub-Region (en) + Dun al-''Iqlimiat TASAWURUNA : دون الإقليمية تسورونا (ar)  (Ts''erona)
WARSANGELI
WARSANGELI Sultanate  (Barran)Saldanada WARSANGELI (so) + Saltanat WARSINGELI : سلطنة أوسنجلي (ar)  (Badhan)
YOBOKI
Ethiopian Occupied YOBOKI Sub-District  (Yoboki)YOBOKI (am) + Sous-District de YOBOKI (fr) + Mintaqah YUBUKY : منطقة یوبوکی (ar) + YŌBÓKI Rakaakay (aa) + Gobolka YOBOKI (so)  (Yoboki)
ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI
ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI Special Economic Zone  (Chambishi)ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI Special Economic Zone (en) + ZÀNBǏYǍ QIĀNBǏXĪ Jīngjì Tèqū : 赞比亚谦比希经济特区 (hz)  (Chambishi)
ZANZIBAR
Revolutionary Council of ZANZIBAR  (Zanzibar)Revolutionary Government of ZANZIBAR (en) + Serikali ya Mapinduzi ya ZANZIBAR (sw)  (Zanzibar)

34 Territories & Dependencies



International Organizations or Groupings (selective list)


ACCORD
Organisation
Council of ACCORD : Council of Understanding  (Abidjan)Conseil de l''ENTENTE (fr)  (Abidjan) org
AFRICAN BANK
OrganisationUNO Observer
African Development Bank : AFDB  (Abidjan)African Development Bank : AfDB (en) + Banque Africaine de Développement : BAFD (fr)  (Abidjan) President Omar Kabbaj (ma)
AFRICAN NATURE
Organisation
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources : CONVENTION ON CONSERVATION  (Algiers)African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources : CONVENTION ON CONSERVATION (en) + Convention Africaine sur la Conservation de la Nature et des Ressources Naturelles : CONVENTION SUR LA CONSERVATION (fr)  (Al-Djazaïr) SG Salim Ahmed Salim (tz)
AFRICAN UNITY
OrganisationUNO Observer
Organization of African Unity : OAU  (Addis Ababa)Organization of African Unity : OAU (en) + Organisation de l''Unité Africaine : OUA (fr)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne) SG Salim Ahmed Salim (tz)
AIPO
Organisation
African Intellectual Property Organization : AIPO  (Yaounde)Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle : OAPI (fr)  (Yaoundé) org
APPA
Organisation
African Petroleum Producers'' Association : APPA  (Brazzaville)African Petroleum Producers'' Association : APPA (en) + Association des pays Africains Producteurs de Pétrole : APPA (fr)  (Brazzaville) org
ARAB LEAGUE
OrganisationUNO Observer
League of Arab States : ARAB LEAGUE  (Cairo)Jāmiʻat AD-DUWAL AL-ʻARABIYYA : جامعة الدول العربية (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) SG Esmat Abdel-Megid (eg)
ARAB MAGHREB UNION
Organisation
Arab Maghreb Union : AMU  (Algiers + Rabat)Ittihad al-Maghrib al-Araby - IMA : اتحاد المغرب العربي (ar) + Union du Maghreb Arabe : UMA (fr)  (Al-Djazaïr + Ar-Rabat) SG Mohamed Amamou (tn)
ASECNA
Organisation
Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar : ASECNA  (Dakar)Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar : ASECNA (fr)  (Dakar) Trusteeship Committee of Ministers
CENTRAL AFRICA
Organisation
Treaty for the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa : EMCCA  (Ndjamena)Traité pour la Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l''Afrique Centrale : CÉMAC (fr)  (N''Djamena) SG Louis Sylvain-Ngoma (cg)
CENTRAL AFRICAN STATES
Organisation
Economic Community of Central African States : ECCAS  (Libreville)Communauté Économique des États de l''Afrique Centrale : CÉÉAC (fr) + Comunidade Econômica dos Estados da África Central : CEEÁC (pt)  (Libreville) SG Louis Sylvain-Ngoma (cg)
EAST AFRICA
Organisation
EAST AFRICAN Cooperation Secretariat  (Arusha)EAST AFRICAN Cooperation Secretariat (en) + Ushirikiano wa AFRIKA MASHARIKI (sw)  (Arusha) SG Francis Muthaura (ke)
EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
Organisation
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa : COMESA  (Lusaka)Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa : COMESA (en) + Marché Commun de l''Afrique Orientale et Australe : COMESA (fr) + Mercado Comum da África Oriental e Austral : COMESA (pt)  (Lusaka) SG Eratus Mwencha (ke)
EUROMED
Organisation
Barcelona Process of Euro-Mediterranean Conference : EUROMED  (Barcelona)Processus de Barcelone de la Conférence Euro-Méditerranéenne : EUROMED (fr) + Barcelona Process of Euro-Mediterranean Conference : EUROMED (en) + EUROMED (ar)  (Barcelona) Jacques Santer
GREAT LAKES COUNTRIES
Organisation
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries : Suspended ECGLC  (Gisenyi)Communauté Économique des Pays des Grand Lacs : CÉPGL (fr)  (Gisenyi) Interregnum
GREATER ARABIA
Organisation
Greater Arab Free Trade Area : Council of Arab Economic Unity : CAEU  (Cairo)Manṭiqatu ''t-Tigāra ''l-ʿArabiyya al-Hurra ''l-Kubrā : MTAHK : منطقة التجارة العربية الحرة الكبرى (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) SG Esmat Abdel-Megid (eg)
IGAD
Organisation
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development : IGAD  (Jibuti)Inter-Governmental Authority on Development : IGAD (en)  (Jibuti) Secretary Tekeste Ghebray (et)
INDIAN OCEAN
Organisation
Secretariat of Indian Ocean Commission : IOC  (Quatre Bornes)Commission de l''Océan Indien : COI (fr) + Indian Ocean Commission : IOC (en)  (Quatre Bornes) SG Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed (km)
INDIAN OCEAN RIM
Organisation
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation : IOR-ARC  (Port Louis)Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation : IOR-ARC (en)  (Port Louis) Special Council of Ministers
ISESCO
Organisation
Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO  (Rabat)ISESCO : المنظمة الإسلامية للتربية والعلوم والثقافة (ar) + Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO (en) + Organisation Islamique pour l''Éducation les Sciences et la Culture : ISESCO (fr)  (Ar-Rabat) DG Abdulaziz Othman Altwaijri (sa)
LAKE CHAD BASIN
Organisation
Lake Chad Basin Commission : LCBC  (Ndjamena)Commssion du Bassin du Lac Tchad : CBLT (fr) + Lake Chad Basin Commission : LCBC (en)  (N''Djamena) Abubakar Bobboi Jauro (ng)
MOROCCO-AMERICA
Organisation
MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship (en) + Mueahadat al-Sadaqat AL-MAGHRIBAT AL-''AMRIKIA : معاهدة الصداقة المغربية الأمريكية (ar)  (Ar-Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia) Chiefs of States
OHADA
Organisation
Organisation for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa : OHADA  (Yaounde)Organisation pour l''Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires : OHADA (fr)  (Yaoundé) Kolela Boutora-Takpa (tg)
ORIENTAL ORTHODOXISM
Organisation
Old Oriental Churches : ORIENTAL ORTHODOX Churches  (Alexandria + Echmiadzin)Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ (cop)  (Al-Iskandarīyah + Vagharshapat) Pope Shenouda III (eg)
PELINDABA TREATY
Organisation
African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ  (Pelindaba)African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ (en) + Traité pour une Zone Exempte d''Armes Nucléaires en Afrique : ZEANA (fr) + Tratado Africano para formación de una Zona Libre de Armas Nucleares : ZLANA (es)  (Pelindaba) SG Salim Ahmed Salim (tz)
SAHEL-SAHARAN STATES
Organisation
Community of Sahel-Saharan States : CEN-SAD  (Tripoli)CEN-SAD : تجمع دول الساحل والصحراء (ar) + Community of Sahel-Saharan States : CEN-SAD (en) + Communauté des États Sahélo-Sahariens : CEN-SAD (fr) + Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Sarianos : CEN-SAD (pt)  (Tarābulus) SG Mohamed Al-Madani Al-Azhari (ly)
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Organisation
Southern African Development Community : SADC  (Gaborone)Southern African Development Community : SADC (en) + Communauté de Développement de l’Afrique Australe : CDAA (fr) + Comunidade para o Desenvolvimento da África Austral : CDAA (pt)  (Gaborone) Secretary Kaire Mbuende (na)
UN-HABITAT
Organisation
United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT (en) + Programme des Nations-Unies pour les Établissements Humains : ONU-HABITAT (fr) + Programa de Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos : ONU-HABITAT (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Naselennym Punktam : Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Hаселённым Пунктам : ООН-ХАБИТАТ (ru) + UN-HABITAT : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للمستوطنات البشرية (ar)  (Nairobi) SG Kofi Annan (gh)
UNEP
Organisation
United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP (en) + Programme des Nations-Unies pour l''Environnement : PNUE (fr) + Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente : PNUMA (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Okruzhayuschey Srede : POOS - Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Окружающей Cреде : ПООC (ru) + Lianheguo Huanjing Shu : LHS - 联合国环境署 (zh) + UNEP : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للبيئة (ar)  (Nairobi) Klaus Toepfer (de)
UNION OF CENTRAL AFRICA
Organisation
Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa : UDEAC  (Bangui)Union Douanière et Économique de l’Afrique Centrale : UDÉAC (fr)  (Bangui) President Jacques Chirac
WEST AFRICAN STATES
Organisation
Economic Community of West African States : ECOWAS  (Abuja)Economic Community of West African States : ECOWAS (en) + Communauté économique des États de l''Afrique de l''Ouest : CÉDÉAO (fr) + Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental : CEDEAO (pt)  (Abuja) Secretary Lansana Kouyate (gn)
WEST AFRICAN UNION
Organisation
West African Economic and Monetary Union : WAEMU  (Ouagadougou)Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest-Africaine : UÉMOA (fr)  (Ouagadougou) org

32 Organisations & Groupings (selective list)


Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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