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SYRIA IN EXILE  TURKEY  Syrian National Council : SNC Syrian National Council : SNC
(Istanbul) - (Ankara) - (Istanbul) (Istanbul)


Flag or logo since 2012-01-28
Muhafazah RIF DIMASHQ : مُحافظة ريف دمشق (ar)
Emblem or Symbol

Burhan Ghalioun
(ruler of SYRIA IN EXILE since 2011-08-23)

President Abdullah Gul
(ruler of TURKEY since 2007-08-28)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()



8 Mainland Divisions:

DAMASCUS RURAL DAMASCUS COUNTRYSIDE District : Damascus Rural Area District  (Babbila)Local: Mintaqah RIF DIMASHQ  (Babbila)
DARAYA DARAYA District  (Daraya)Local: Mintaqat DARAYYA : منطقة داريا (ar)  (Darayya)
NABEK NABEK District  (Al-Nabek)Local: Mintaqah AN-NABK  (An-Nabk)
QATANA QATANA District  (Qatana)Local: Mintaqah QATANA  (Qatana)
QUDSAYA QUDSAYA District  (Qudsaya)Local: Mintaqah QUDSAYA : منطقة قدسيا‎ (ar)  (Qudsaya)
QUTAYFAH QUTAYFAH District  (Qutayfah)Local: Mintaqah AL-QUTAYFAH  (Al-Qutayfah)
TELL TELL District  (Al-Tell)Local: Mintaqah AL-TALL  (Al-Tall)
ZABADANI ZABADANI District  (Zabadani)Local: Mintaqah AZ-ZABADANI : منطقة الزبداني (ar)  (Az-Zabadani)

Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

ISLAM BRIGADES Brigades of Islam : LIWA AL-ISLAM  (Al-Otaibah)
ISLAMIC LEVANT Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT  ((Hama) + (Idlib))
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun)
SYRIA SYRIAN Arab Republic  (Damascus)
SYRIA IN EXILE Syrian National Council : SNC  (Istanbul)

Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

GADOT GADOT Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Gadot)
GOLAN Israeli annexed GOLAN Sub-District  (Katzrin)
GREATER SYRIA Support Front for the People of Syria : AL-NUSRA FRONT : Al-Qaeda in Syria  (Al-Nusra Front)
HAMA Governorate of HAMA  (Hama)
HOMS Governorate of HOMS  (Homs)
HOULA PLAIN Syrian Turkmens of HOULA PLAIN Region : Taldou District  (Taldou)
ISLAMIC SHAM Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT : Ahrar Al-Sham  ((Hama) + (Idlib))
KAMISHLI Kurdistan National Assembly in Syria : KAMISHLI District  (Kamishli)
KUSEYR KUSEYR District  (Kuseyr)
LATAKIA Governorate of LATAKIA  (Latakia)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)
RASTAN RASTAN District  (Rastan)
SANAMAIN SANAMAIN District  (Sanamain)
SENIR Israeli Occupied SENIR Demilitarized Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Senir)
SULEYMAN SHAH TOMB Enclave of the Territory of the Turk''s Tomb in Manbij District : TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH  (Tomb of Suleyman Shah)
TARTUS Governorate of TARTUS  (Tartus)
TARTUS BASE Russian Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)
TELL KALAKH TELL KALAKH District  (Tell Kalakh)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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