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2019-NOV-08

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People''s Republic of CHINA : CHINA (Beijing)  Xi Jinping
Republic of CHINA : CHINA-TAIPEI (Taipei)  President Tsai Ing-Wen

Alternate Entities with similar names

People''s Republic of CHINA
(Beijing)

People''s Republic of CHINA UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1949-09-27
ZHŌNGHUÁ Rénmín Gònghéguó : 中华人民共和国 (zh)
Emblem or Symbol

Xi Jinping
(ruler of CHINA since 2012-11-15)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Beijing(Beijing)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


MAINLAND CHINA People''s Republic of CHINA  (Beijing)

26 Mainland Divisions:

ANHUI ANHUI Province  (Hefei)Local: ANHUI Sheng : 安徽省 (zh)  (Hefei)
BEIJING BEIJING Special Municipality  (Beijing)Local: BEIJING Shi : 北京市 (zh)  (Beijing)
CHONGQING CHONGQING Special Municipality  (Chongqing)Local: CHONGQING Shi : 重庆市 (zh)  (Chongqing)
FUJIAN FUJIAN Province  (Fuzhou)Local: FUJIAN Sheng : 福建省 (zh)  (Fuzhou)
GANSU GANSU Province  (Lanzhou)Local: GANSU Sheng : 甘肃省 (zh)  (Lanzhou)
GUANGDONG GUANGDONG Province  (Guangzhou)Local: GUANGDONG Sheng : 广东省 (zh)  (Guangzhou)
GUIZHOU GUIZHOU Province  (Guiyang)Local: GUIZHOU Sheng : 贵州省 (zh)  (Guiyang)
HAINAN Special Economic Zone of HAINAN Province  (Haikou)Local: HǍINÁN Shěng : 海南省 (zh)  (Haikou)
HEBEI HEBEI Province  (Shijiazhuang)Local: HEBEI Sheng : 河北省 (zh)  (Shijiazhuang)
HEILONGJIANG HEILONGJIANG Province  (Harbin)Local: HEILONGJIANG Sheng : 黑龙江省 (zh)  (Ha''erbin)
HENAN HENAN Province  (Zhengzhou)Local: HENAN Sheng : 河南省 (zh)  (Zhengzhou)
HUBEI HUBEI Province  (Wuhan)Local: HUBEI Sheng : 湖北省 (zh)  (Wuhan)
HUNAN HUNAN Province  (Changsha)Local: HUNAN Sheng : 湖南省 (zh)  (Changsha)
JIANGSU JIANGSU Province  (Nanjing)Local: JIANGSU Sheng : 江苏 省 (zh)  (Nanjing)
JIANGXI JIANGXI Province  (Nanchang)Local: JIANGXI Sheng : 江西省 (zh)  (Nanchang)
JILIN JILIN Province  (Changchun)Local: JILIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh)  (Changchun)
LIAONING LIAONING Province  (Shenyang)Local: LIÁONÍNG Shěng : 辽宁省 (zh)  (Shenyang)
QINGHAI QINGHAI Province  (Xining)Local: QINGHAI Sheng : 青海省 (zh)  (Xining)
SHAANXI SHAANXI Province  (Xian)Local: SHAANXI Sheng : 陕西省 (zh)  (Xi''an)
SHANDONG SHANDONG Province  (Jinan)Local: SHANDONG Sheng : 山东省 (zh)  (Jinan)
SHANGHAI SHANGHAI Special Municipality  (Shanghai)Local: SHANGHAI Shi : 上海市 (zh)  (Shanghai)
SHANXI SHANXI Province  (Taiyuan)Local: SHANXI Sheng : 山西省 (zh)  (Taiyuan)
SICHUAN SICHUAN Province  (Chengdu)Local: SICHUAN Sheng : 四川省 (zh)  (Chengdu)
TIANJIN TIANJIN Special Municipality  (Tianjin)Local: TIANJIN Shi : 天津市 (zh)  (Tianjin)
YUNNAN YUNNAN Province  (Kunming)Local: YUNNAN Sheng : 云南省 (zh)  (Kunming)
ZHEJIANG ZHEJIANG Province  (Hangzhou)Local: ZHEJIANG Sheng : 浙江省 (zh)  (Hangzhou)


2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

HONG KONG HONG KONG Special Administrative Region of the People''s Republic of China  (Victoria City) Xi Jinping
MACAO MACAO Special Administrative Region of the People''s Republic of China  (Macao) Xi Jinping


9 Assisted Entities

ARAKAN LEAGUE United League of Arakan : ULA  (Laiza) Tun Myat Naing
EASTERN SHANLAND National Democratic Alliance Army-EASTERN SHAN STATE  ((Mong La)) Sai Leun
KACHINLAND KACHIN National Organization  (Laiza) President Du Wa Bawm Wang La Raw
KOKANG ALLIANCE Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army : Army of the KOKANG Democracy Party  (Sino-Burmese Border) Yang Mao-Liang
NAGALIM Government of the People''s Republic of NAGALAND  (Hebron Camp) Isak Chisi Swu
PALAUNGLAND PALAUNG State Liberation Front  (Namhsan) Tar Aik Bong
SHINING PATH Communist Party of Peru-SHINING PATH  (Apurimac Valley) Comrade Jose
SINUIJU SINUIJU Special Administrative Region  (Sinuiju) Sha Rixiang
WA STATE Independent WA State  (Pangkham) Pao Yu-Chang



7 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

AKAKI AKAKI Chinese Special Economic Zone  (Dukham)Local: AKAKI Chinese Special Economic Zone (en) + Dongfei Jituan AISAIEBIYA : 东非集团 埃塞俄比亚 (zh)  (Dukem)
CHINA-EGYPT SUEZ China-Egypt SUEZ Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone  (El Sokhna)Local: China-Egypt SUEZ Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (en)  (El Sokhna)
LEKKI LAGOS LEKKI LAGOS Free Trade Zone  (Lekki)Local: LEKKI LAGOS Free Trade Zone (en)  (Lekki)
MAURITIUS JINFEI MAURITIUS JINFEI Economic Trade and Cooperation Zone  (Jin Fei Smart City)Local: MAURITIUS JIN FEI Economic Trade and Cooperation Zone (en) + MÁOLǏQIÚSĪ JĪN FĒI Jīngjì Màoyì Hézuò Qū : 毛里求斯今飞经济贸易合作区 (zh)  (Jin-Fei Smart City)
NIGERIA-OGUN NIGERIA OGUN-Guangdong Free Trade Zone  (Igbesa)Local: NIGERIA OGUN-Guangdong Free Trade Zone (en) + NÍRÌLÌYǍ ÀOGÒNG Guǎngdōng Zìyóu Màoyì Qū : 尼日利亚奥贡广东自由贸易区 (zh)  (Igbesa)
ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI Special Economic Zone  (Chambishi)Local: ZAMBIA-CHAMBISHI Special Economic Zone (en) + ZÀNBǏYǍ QIĀNBǏXĪ Jīngjì Tèqū : 赞比亚谦比希经济特区 (hz)  (Chambishi)
ZAMBIA-LUSAKA ZAMBIA-LUSAKA Special Economic Zone  (Zambia Lusaka)Local: ZAMBIA-LUSAKA Special Economic Zone (en) + ZÀNBǏYǍ LÚSÀKǍ Jīngjì Tèqū : 赞比亚卢萨卡经济特区 (zh)  (Zambia Lusaka)

5 Territories in Asia:

INNER MONGOLIA INNER MONGOLIA Autonomous Region  (Huhehot)Local: NÈI MĚNGGǓ Zìzhìqū : 内蒙古自治区 (zh) + ÖBÜR MONGYOL-un Öbertegen Zasaqu Orun : ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ (mn)  (Huhehaote)
KWANGSI KWANGSI Chuang Autonomous Region  (Nanning)Local: GUǍNGXī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū : 广西壮族自治区 (zh) + GVANGJSIH Bouxcuengh Swcigih (za)  (Nanning)
NINGSIA NINGSIA Huei Autonomous Region  (Yinchuan)Local: NÍNGXIÀ Huízú Zìzhìqū : 宁夏回族自治区 : نٍ شيَا خُوِ ذُوْ ذِ جِ ثُوْ (zh)  (Yinchuan)
SINKIANG SINKIANG Uyghur Autonomous Region  (Urumchi)Local: XĪNJIĀNG Wéiwú''ěr Zìzhìqū : 新疆维吾尔自治区 (zh) + SHINJANG Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni : شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎ (ug)  (Wulumuqi)
TIBET TIBETAN Autonomous Region  (Lhasa)Local: XĪZÀNG Zìzhìqū : 西藏自治区 (zh) + BOD-rang-skyong-ljongs : བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ (bo)  (Lasa)

10 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

COCO ISLANDS COCO ISLANDS Township  (Great Coco Island)Local: KOKOKYUN Myahoetnaal : ကိုကိုးကျွန်းမြို့နယ် (my) + KEKE Qundao : 科科群岛 (zh)  (Kokokyun)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE Leased GOLDEN TRIANGLE Special Economic Zone  (Boten)Local: JĪNSĀNJIǍO Jīngjì Tèqū : 金三角经济特区 (zh) + SAMLIAMTHONG Khedsedthakid Phised : ສາມຫລ່ຽມທອງເຂດເສດຖະກິດພິເສດ (lo)  (Boten)
GWADAR FREE ZONES Gwadar Special Economic Zone : GWADAR FREE ZONES  (Gwadar Port)Local: GWADAR Special Economic Zone (en) + GWADAR Sez : گوادر خصوصی اقتصادی زون (ur) + GUĀ DÁ''ĚR Jīngjì Tèqū : 瓜达尔经济特区 (zh)  (Bandar Gwadar)
HAMBANTOTA PORT HAMBANTOTA MAHINDA RAJAPAKSA PORT Chinese Concession  (Port of Hambantota Mahinda Rajapaksa)Local: HÀNBĀNTUŌTǍ MǍXĪNDÁ LĀJIǍPÀKÈ Sàgǎng : 漢班托塔·馬欣達·拉賈帕克薩港 (zh) + RUHUNU MAGAMPURA MAHINDA RAJAPAKSA International Port (en) + MĀGAMPURA MAHINDA RĀJAPAKṣA Varāya : මාගම්පුර මහින්ද රාජපක්‍ෂ වරාය (si) + MAKĀMPURĀ MAHINTA RĀJAPAKṣA Tuṟaimukam : மகாம்புரா மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ துறைமுகம் (ta)  (Hànbāntuōtǎ Mǎxīndá Lājiǎpàkè Sàgǎng)
HENGQIN Leased Lands in the Special Economic District of HENGQIN New Area  (Hengqin)Local: HÉNGQÍN Xīnqū : 横琴新区 (zh)  (Hengqin)
JIZZAKH FREE ZONE Free Industrial Zone JIZZAKH  (Jizzakh Industrial Park)Local: Erkin Industrial Zona JIZZAX : Эркин индустриал зона ЖИЗЗАХ (uz) + Zìyóu Gōngyè Qū JÍZHĀKÈ : 自由工业区吉扎克 (zh)  (Erkin Industrial Zona Jizzax)
KYAUKPYU KYAUKPYU Special Economic Zone  (Ramree)Local: KYAUKPYU Special Economic Zone (en)  (Rahmee)
PALAUNG PALAUNG Self-Administered Zone  (Namhsan)Local: PA LAUNG Kopine Aotehkyaote Hkwngr days : ပလောင် ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ ဒေသ (my) + TA''ANG (pll)  (Om-Yar)
SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK China-Singapore SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK  (Suzhou Industrial Park)Local: Zhōngguó-Xīnjiāpō SŪZHŌU GŌNGYÈ YUÁNQŪ : 中國—新加坡蘇州工業園區 (zh) + China-Singapore SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK (en)  (Sūzhōu Gōngyè Yuán Qū)
WA WA Self-Administered Division  (Hopang + Pangkham)Local: WA Kopine Aotehkyaote Hkwngr Tine : ဝ ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ တိုင်း (my) + VAX (wbm)  (Hopang + Bangkum)

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Europe:

GREAT STONE INDUSTRIAL PARK Special Economic Zone of GREAT STONE INDUSTRIAL PARK  (Great Stone Industrial Park)Local: Osobaya Ekonomicheskaya Zona VELÍKIY KÁMEN INDUSTRIAL''NYY PARK : Oсобая Зкономическая Зона ВЕЛИКИЙ КАМЕНЬ ИНДУСТРИАЛЬНЫЙ ПАРК (ru) + ZHŌNGGUÓ-BÁI''ÈLUÓSĪ GŌNGYÈ YUÁN Jīngjì Tèqū : 中国-白俄罗斯工业园 经济特区 (zh) + Special Economic Zone of GREAT STONE INDUSTRIAL PARK (en)  (Velikiy Kamen'' Industrial''nyy Park)



91 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Tunis)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  (Buenos Aires)
ASIA Asia Cooperation Dialogue : ACD  (Islamabad)
ASIA-AFRICA Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization : AALCO  (New Delhi)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Brussels + Singapore)
ASIA-PACIFIC Secretariat of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation : APEC  (Singapore)
ASIAN BANK Asian Development Bank : ADB  (Mandaluyong City)
ASIAN INFRASTRUCTURE BANK Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank : AIIB  (Beijing)
ASIAN STATES Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia : CICA  (Alma-Ata)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
BRICS Organization of Brazil Russia India China South Africa Group : BRICS  (Brasilia)
BRICS PLUS BRICS PLUS Block  (Beijing)
CARIBBEAN BANK Caribbean Development Bank : CDB  (Bridgetown)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
CHINA-AFRICA Forum on China-Africa Cooperation : FOCAC  (Johannesburg)
CHINA-JAPAN-SOUTH KOREA Secreatariat of the CHINA-JAPAN-REPUBLIC OF KOREA Trilateral Cooperation  (Seoul)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
DEVELOPMENT LAW International Development Law Organization : IDLO  (Rome)
EAST ASIA EAST ASIA Summit  (Denpasar)
ENERGY International Energy Charter : IEC  (Woluwe-Saint Lambert)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FINANCE Financial Stability Board : FSB  (Basle)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (New York City)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Summits  (Osaka + Cancun)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization : IMSO  (London)
INTER-AMERICAN BANK Inter-American Development Bank : IADB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
IOM International Organization for Migration : IOM Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Masdar City)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Cadarache)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
NATURE CONSERVATION International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK New Development Bank : NDB  (Shanghai)
NORTH PACIFIC North Pacific Marine Science Organization : PICES  (Victoria)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PELINDABA TREATY African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ  (Pelindaba)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SHANGHAI GROUP Shanghai Cooperation Organization : SCO  (Beijing)
SOUTH CENTRE SOUTH CENTRE Organization  (Geneva)
SOUTH PACIFIC South Pacific Tourism Organization : SPTO  (Suva)
SOUTH-SOUTH Partners in Population and Development : PPD  (Dhaka + Kampala + Taicang)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN FISHERIES Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean : Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission : WCPFC  (Kolonia on Ponape)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



1 Government in Exile

COMMUNIST BURMA BURMA Communist Party  (Chiangmai) Comrade Kyin Maung




Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

CHINA-TAIPEI Republic of CHINA  (Taipei)
HONG KONG HONG KONG Special Administrative Region of the People''s Republic of China  (Victoria City)
ISLAMIC EAST TURKESTAN East Turkestan Islamic Movement : ETIM  (Wana)
MACAO MACAO Special Administrative Region of the People''s Republic of China  (Macao)


Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

FUKIEN Province of FUKIEN : Quemoy and Matsu Islands  (Jinsheng)
GAOSHAN Taiwan First Nations : GAOSHAN  (Taipei)
HENGQIN Leased Lands in the Special Economic District of HENGQIN New Area  (Hengqin)
KAOHSIUNG KAOHSIUNG Special Municipality  (Kaohsiung)
NEW TAIPEI NEW TAIPEI Special Municipality : Hsinpei Special Municipality  (Panchiao)
PRATAS ISLANDS Military Territory of PRATAS ISLANDS  (Dongsha)
SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK China-Singapore SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK  (Suzhou Industrial Park)
TAICHUNG TAICHUNG Special Municipality  (Taichung)
TAINAN TAINAN Special Municipality  (Tainan)
TAIPEI TAIPEI Special Municipality  (Taipei)
TAIWAN Province of TAIWAN  (Zhongxing New Village)
TAOYUAN TAOYUAN Special Municipality  (Taoyuan)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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