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GERMAN Colonial Empire : German Realm

GERMAN Colonial Empire : German Realm PCA Member

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
DEUTSCHE Schutzgebiete : Deutsches Reich (de)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor William II
(ruler of GERMANY since 1900-01-01)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


GERMANY GERMAN Empire  (Berlin)

18 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

ANHALT Duchy of ANHALT  (Dessau)Local: Herzogtum ANHALT (de)  (Dessau)
BADEN Grand Duchy of BADEN  (Karlsruhe)Local: Großherzogtum BADEN (de)  (Karlsruhe)
BAVARIA Kingdom of BAVARIA  (Munich)Local: Königreich BAYERN (de)  (München)
BREMEN Free Hanseatic City of BREMEN  (Bremen)Local: Freie Hansestadt BREMEN (de)  (Bremen)
BRUNSWICK Duchy of BRUNSWICK  (Brunswick)Local: Herzogtum BRAUNSCHWEIG (de)  (Braunschweig)
HAMBURG Free and Hanseatic City of HAMBURG  (Hamburg)Local: Freie und Hansestadt HAMBURG (de)  (Hamburg)
HESSE AND BY RHINE Grand Duchy of HESSE AND BY RHINE  (Darmstadt)Local: Großherzogtum HESSEN UND BEI RHEIN (de)  (Darmstadt)
HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG Grand Duchy of Oldenburg : Grand Duchy of HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG  (Oldenburg)Local: Grossherzog von Oldenburg : Grossherzog zu HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG (de)  (Oldenburg)
LIPPE Principality of LIPPE  (Detmold)Local: Fürstentum LIPPE (de)  (Detmold)
LUBECK Free and Hanseatic City of LUBECK  (Lubeck)Local: Freie und Hansestadt LÜBECK (de)  (Lübeck)
MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN Grand Duchy of MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN  (Schwerin in Mecklenburg)Local: Großherzogtum von MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN (de)  (Schwerin im Mecklenburg)
MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ Grand Duchy of MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ  (New Strelitz)Local: Großherzogtum von MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ (de)  (Neustrelitz)
PRUSSIA Kingdom of PRUSSIA  (Berlin)Local: Königreich PREUßEN (de)  (Berlin)
SAXONY Kingdom of SAXONY  (Dresden)Local: Königreich SACHSEN (de)  (Dresden)
SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE Principality of SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE  (Bueckeburg)Local: Fürstentum SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE (de)  (Bückeburg)
THURINGIAN STATES THURINGIAN States  (Weimar)Local: THÜRINGISCHE Staaten (de)  (Weimar)
WALDECK AND PYRMONT Principality of WALDECK-PYRMONT  (Arolsen)Local: Fürstentum WALDECK UND PYRMONT (de)  (Arolsen)
WURTTEMBERG Kingdom of WURTTEMBERG  (Stuttgart)Local: Königreich WÜRTTEMBERG (de)  (Stuttgart)

2 Assisted Entities

CRETE Cretan State : International Council of the Principality of CRETE under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Chania) King George I
SAMOA Provisional Government of the Tripartite Protectorate of the Kingdom of SAMOA  (Apia) Provisional Government

5 Territories in Africa:

GERMAN EAST AFRICA GERMAN EAST AFRICA Colony  (Daressalam)Local: Schutzgebiet DEUTSCH-OSTAFRIKA (de)  (Daressalam)
NORTH-WEST AFRICA German Crown Land of NORTH-WEST AFRICA : German Protectorate of Northwest Africa  (Cameroon City)Local: Deutsche Kolonie NORDWESTAFRIKA : Schutzgebiet NordwestAfrika (de)  (Kamerunstadt)
TOGOLAND German Protectorate of TOGOLAND  (Lome)Local: Schutzgebiet TOGOLAND (de)  (Lome)

3 Territories in Asia:

GERMAN HANKOW German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)Local: Deutsch Konzession in HANKAU (de)  (Hankau)
GERMAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)Local: Deutsch Konzession in TIENTSIN (de)  (Deutsch Tientsin)
KIAUCHAU German Leased Territory of KIAUCHAU  (Tsingtao)Local: Deutsches Pachtgebiet KIAUTSCHOU (de) + CHIAO-CHOU WAN Chü-Chieh-Ti : 胶州湾租借地 (zh)  (Tsingtau)

5 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

KULANGSU ISLAND International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: Internationale Konzession von KULANGSU-INSEL (de) + International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND (en) + Concesión Internacional de ISLA KULANGSU (es) + Concession internationale de l''ÎLE KOULANGSEU (fr) + Concessione internazionale dell''iSOLA KULANGSU (it) + KORONSU-JIMA no Kokusai Sokai : コロンス島の国際租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van KULANGSU EILAND (nl) + Concessão Internacional da ILHA KULANGSU (pt) + Kulan : Mezhdunarodnyy Kontsessiya KULANGYU OSTROVA : Международный Концессия КУЛАНГЮ ОСТРОВА (ru) + KU-LANG-YÜ Kuo-Tsì T''e-Hsü Ching-Ying : 鼓浪嶼國際特許經營 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
PACKHOI Concessions of PACKHOI  (Packhoi)Local: Concessions de PACKHOI  (Packhoi)
PEKING LEGATIONS Boxer Rebelion in PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTHERN SHANTUNG German Sphere of Influence of SOUTHERN SHANTUNG  (Linyi)Local: SHAN-TUNG NAN-PU Ou : 山東南部區 (zh) + Gebiet des SÜDLICHEN SCHANTUNG (de)  (Linyi)

1 Territory in Europe:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)Local: Reichsland ELSAß-LOTHRINGEN (de)  (Straßburg)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

MORESNET Belgo-Prussian Royal Commission of the Neutral Territory of MORESNET  (Moresnet)Local: Territoire de MORESNET NEUTRE (fr) + Neutralen Territorium von NEUTRAL-MORESNET (de) + Terrein NEUTRAAL-MORESNET (nl)  (Moresnet)
WISMAR Swedish Leased City of WISMAR part of Mecklenburg-Schwerin  (Wismar)Local: Stadt WISMAR (de)  (Wismar)

4 Territories in Oceania:

GERMAN NEW GUINEA Protectorate of GERMAN NEW GUINEA  (Herbertshohe)Local: Schutzgebiet DEUTSCH NEU-GUINEA (de)  (Herbertshöhe)
JALUIT-MARSHALL ISLANDS German Protectorate of Marshall Islands administered by JALUIT Company  (Jabor)Local: Landeshauptmannschaft JALUIT-Marshall Inseln (de)  (Jabor)
MARIANA ISLANDS German District of MARIANA ISLANDS  (Saipan)Local: Bezirk MARIANEN (de)  (Saipan)

14 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
DUAL ALLIANCE DUAL ALLIANCE between German Empire and Austro-Hungary  (Vienna)
HAGUE CONVENTION Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes : Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

SCHLOSS HOHENBURG Luxemburgian Residency of SCHLOSS HOHENBURG  (Schloss Hohenburg)
WISMAR Swedish Leased City of WISMAR part of Mecklenburg-Schwerin  (Wismar)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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