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1918-APR-29

Zones: Timeline

GERMAN Realm [German Colonial Empire]
(Berlin)

GERMAN Realm [German Colonial Empire]

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
DEUTSCHES Reich (de) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Emperor William II
(ruler of GERMANY since 1900-01-01)
Capital:Berlin - (Berlin)
Official languages: German (de) .

Mainland:


GERMANY GERMAN Empire  (Berlin)

24 Federated Divisions:

ANHALT Duchy of ANHALT  (Dessau)Local: Herzogtum ANHALT (de)  (Dessau)
BADEN Grand Duchy of BADEN  (Karlsruhe)Local: Großherzogtum BADEN (de)  (Karlsruhe)
BAVARIA Kingdom of BAVARIA  (Munich)Local: Königreich BAYERN (de)  (München)
BREMEN Free Hanseatic City of BREMEN  (Bremen)Local: Freie Hansestadt BREMEN (de)  (Bremen)
BRUNSWICK Duchy of BRUNSWICK  (Brunswick)Local: Herzogtum BRAUNSCHWEIG (de)  (Braunschweig)
HAMBURG Free and Hanseatic City of HAMBURG  (Hamburg)Local: Freie und Hansestadt HAMBURG (de)  (Hamburg)
HESSE AND BY RHINE Grand Duchy of HESSE AND BY RHINE  (Darmstadt)Local: Großherzogtum HESSEN UND BEI RHEIN (de)  (Darmstadt)
HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG Grand Duchy of Oldenburg : Grand Duchy of HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG  (Oldenburg)Local: Grossherzog von Oldenburg : Grossherzog zu HOLSTEIN-OLDENBURG (de)  (Oldenburg)
LIPPE Principality of LIPPE  (Detmold)Local: Fürstentum LIPPE (de)  (Detmold)
LUBECK Free and Hanseatic City of LUBECK  (Lubeck)Local: Freie und Hansestadt LÜBECK (de)  (Lübeck)
MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN Grand Duchy of MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN  (Schwerin in Mecklenburg)Local: Großherzogtum von MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN (de)  (Schwerin im Mecklenburg)
MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ Grand Duchy of MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ  (New Strelitz)Local: Großherzogtum von MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ (de)  (Neustrelitz)
PRUSSIA Kingdom of PRUSSIA  (Berlin)Local: Königreich PREUßEN (de)  (Berlin)
REUSS-GREIZ Principality of REUSS ELDER LINE  (Greiz)Local: Fürstentum REUß ÄLTERE LINIE (de)  (Greiz)
REUSS-SCHLEIZ-GERA Principality of REUSS YOUNGER LINE  (Gera)Local: Fürstentum REUß JÜNGERER LINIE (de)  (Gera)
SAXE-ALTENBURG Duchy of SAXE-ALTENBURG  (Altenburg)Local: Herzogtum SACHSEN-ALTENBURG (de)  (Altenburg)
SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA Union of the Duchy of SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA  (Coburg + Gotha)Local: Herzogtum SACHSEN-COBURG UND GOTHA (de)  (Coburg + Gotha)
SAXE-MEININGEN Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen and Hildbourghausen : Duchy of SAXE-MEININGEN  (Meiningen)Local: Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen : Herzogtum SACHSEN-MEININGEN (de)  (Meiningen)
SAXE-WEIMAR-EISENACH Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach : Grand Duchy of SAXONY  (Weimar)Local: Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach : Großherzogtum SACHSEN (de)  (Weimar)
SAXONY Kingdom of SAXONY  (Dresden)Local: Königreich SACHSEN (de)  (Dresden)
SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE Principality of SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE  (Bueckeburg)Local: Fürstentum SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE (de)  (Bückeburg)
SCHWARZBURG Principality of SCHWARZBURG  (Rudolstadt)Local: Fürstentum SCHWARZBURG (de)  (Rudolstadt)
WALDECK AND PYRMONT Principality of WALDECK-PYRMONT  (Arolsen)Local: Fürstentum WALDECK UND PYRMONT (de)  (Arolsen)
WURTTEMBERG Kingdom of WURTTEMBERG  (Stuttgart)Local: Königreich WÜRTTEMBERG (de)  (Stuttgart)


2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

BALTIC LANDS Joint Council of Livonia Estonia Riga and Oesel : BALTIC State Duchy [in Personal Union with Prussia]  (Riga) Emperor William II
COURLAND AND SEMIGALLIA Independent Duchy of COURLAND AND SEMIGALLIA  (Mitau) Emperor William II


7 Assisted Entities

BIELORUSSIA BELORUSSIAN People´s Republic : White Ruthenian Democratic Republic  (Minsk) Ivan Nikitich Syerada
FLANDERS Independent State of FLANDERS : Flemish Homeland [under German Protection]  (Brussels) President Willem de Vreese
LITHUANIA LITHUANIAN State Council  (Wilna) Antanas Smetona
LUXEMBURG Grand Duchy of LUXEMBURG [German Occupation]  (Luxemburg) Grand Duchess Marie-Adelaide
POLAND Autonomous POLISH Kingdom  (Warsaw) Emperor William II
RUMANIA Kingdom of RUMANIA  (Jassy) King Ferdinand I
UKRAINIAN STATE Ukrainian State : Hetmanate of UKRAINE  (Kiev) Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky



7 Territories:

ALSACE-LORRAINE Autonomous Territory of ALSACE-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)Local: Reichsland ELSAß-LOTHRINGEN (de)  (Straßburg)
CRIMEA Region of CRIMEA [German Occupation]  (Simferopol)Local: Gebied KRIM (de)  (Simferopol)
EASTERN FRONT Supreme Command of All German Forces in The East : OBER-OST  (Mariampol)Local: Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten : OBER-OST (de)  (Mariampol)
GERMAN EAST AFRICA GERMAN EAST AFRICA Colony  (Liwale)Local: Schutzgebiet DEUTSCH-OSTAFRIKA (de)  (Liwale)
KAISER WILHELM THE SECOND LAND Unclaimed Zone of KAISER WILHELM THE SECOND LAND  (Gaussberg)Local: KAISER WILHELM DER ZWEITE LAND : Kaisr Wilhelm Der Zweite Küste (de)  (Gaussberg)
NORTHEASTERN FRANCE German Occupied Territories in NORTHEASTERN FRANCE  (Maubeuge)Local: Deutsch Miltärgebiet NORDOSTEN-FRANKREICH (de)  (Maubeuge)
WALLONIA German Imperial Government-General of BELGIUM [German Occupation of the Region of Wallonia]  (Brussels)Local: Gebiet Wallonien : Kaiserliches Deutsches Generalgouvernement BELGIEN (de)  (Brüssel)

8 Condominiums:

ALAND ISLANDS Swedish Military District of ALAND ISLANDS  (Mariehamn)Local: ÅLANDS Område (sv) + Bezirk ALAND-INSELN (de)  (Mariehamn)
DOBRUJA Occupied Territory of DOBRUJA  (Silistra)Local: Teritoriya na DOBRUDŽA : Територия на ДОБРУДЖА (bg) + DOBRUDSCHA Gebiet (de) + DOBRUCA Bölgesi (ota)  (Silistra)
EASTERN UKRAINE Austro-Hungarian Protectorate of EASTERN UKRAINE  (Odessa)Local: Protektorat OST-UKRAINE (de) + Protektorat SKHIDNA-UKRAYINA : Протекторат СХІДНА УКРАЇНА (uk)  (Odessa)
GERMAN TIENTSIN Chinese Administration of TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)Local: Deutsch Konzession in TIENTSIN (de) + TIEN-CHIN TE-KUO Te-Hsü-Ch´üan : 天津德國特許權 (zh)  (Tien-Chin Te-Kuo Te-Hsü-Ch´üan)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NYLAND German Occupied NYLAND Province  (Helsinki)Local: UUDENMAAN Lääni (fi) + NYLANDS Län (sv) + NEULAND Landkreis (de)  (Helsinki)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PAK-HOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) + Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Pak-Hoi)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)



2 Governments or Movements in Exile

ALBANIA IN EXILE Provisional Government of ALBANIA IN EXILE : Kingdom of Albania in Exile  (Berlin + Paris) King William I of Wied-Skanderbeg II
VOLGA-URAL IDEL-URAL State in Exile : Volga-Ural  (Helsinki) Sadreddin Maxudov



Military entity abroad, special or locally shared:

RAYAK German-Ottoman Air Base of RAYAK  (Rayak)Local: RAYAK Luftstützpunkt (de) + RAYAK Hava Üssü (ota)  (Rayak)


22 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR LAW CODE Conference on International AIR LAW CODE  (Paris)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
CENTRAL POWERS Association of the CENTRAL POWERS  (Berlin)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Electrotechnical Commission : IEC  (London)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Congress of POLICE  (Monaco)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
NAVAL CONFERENCE London NAVAL Conference  (London)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
OPIUM International Opium Convention : IOC  (The Hague)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK Treaty of BREST-LITOVSK  (Brest-Litovsk)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AMERICAN ZONE IN GERMANY American Allied Expeditionary Force in GERMANY  (American Forces in Germany)
SCHLOSS HOHENBURG Luxemburgian Residency of SCHLOSS HOHENBURG  (Schloss Hohenburg)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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