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European Union : EU

European Union : EU UNO ObserverDe facto Independent

Flag or logo since 1986-05-26
Den Europæiske Union : EU (da) + Europäische Union : EU (de) + Europaïki Enosi : EE - Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση : EE (el) + European Union : EU (en) + Unión Europea : UE (es) + Union Européenne : EU (fr) + Unione Europea : UE (it) + Europese Unie : EU (nl) + União Europeia : UE (pt)
Emblem or Symbol

Jacques Delors
(ruler of EUROPEAN UNION since 1985-01-05)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


EUROPEAN UNION European Union : EU  (Brussels)

12 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

BELGIUM Kingdom of BELGIUM  (Brussels) King Albert II
DANMARK Kingdom of DENMARK  (Copenhagen) Queen Margaret II
FRANCE METROPOLITAN FRENCH Republic  (Paris) President Francois Mitterrand
GERMANY Federal Republic of GERMANY  (Berlin + Bonn + Karlsruhe) Bundespresident Richard von Weizsaecker
GREECE HELLENIC Republic : Greek Republic  (Athens) President Constantine Karamanlis
HOLLAND Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS  (Amsterdam + The Hague) Queen Beatrix
IRELAND Republic of IRELAND  (Dublin) President Mary Robinson
ITALY ITALIAN Republic  (Rome) President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
LUXEMBOURG Grand Duchy of LUXEMBOURG  (Luxembourg) Grand Duke Jean
PORTUGAL PORTUGUESE Republic : Portuguese Empire  (Lisbon) President Mario Soares
SPAIN Kingdom of SPAIN  (Madrid) King Juan Carlos I

5 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Marti Alanis
HOLY SEE State of Vatican City : HOLY SEE  (Vatican) Pope John Paul II
MONACO Principality of MONACO  (Monaco) Prince Rainier III
ORDER OF MALTA Autonomous Sovereign Military Order of SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM OF RHODES AND OF MALTA  (Palace of Malta + Via Condotti) Grandmaster Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie
SAN MARINO Most Serene Republic of SAN MARINO  (San Marino) Captains-Regent

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

CEUTA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE CEUTA (es)  (Valla de Ceuta)
PARSLEY ISLAND Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Tura)Local: Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Tura)

5 Territories in Europe:

CURIA European Court of Justice : ECJ  (Luxembourg)Local: Cour de Justice Européenne : CJE  (Luxembourg)
EUROLAND European Monetary Cooperation Fund : ECMF  (Luxembourg)Local: European Monetary Cooperation Fund : ECMF  (Luxembourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Investment Bank : EIB  (Luxembourg-Kirchberg)Local: Europäische Investitionsbank : EIB (de) + European Investment Bank : EIB (en) + Banque Européenne d''Investissement : BEI (fr)  (Luxembourg-Kirchberg)
EUROPEAN COMMISSION European Commission : EC  (Brussels-Berlaymont)Local: Europäische Kommission : EK (de) + European Commission : EC (en) + Commission Européenne : CE (fr)  (Bruxelles-Berlaymont)
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EUROPEAN Parliament  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)Local: Europa-Parlamentet : EP (da) + Europäisches Parlament : EP (de) + Evropaïkó Koinovoúlio : EK - : Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο : ΕΚ (el) + European Parliament : EP (en) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (es) + Parlement Européen : PE (fr) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (it) + Europees Parlement : EP (nl) + Parlamento Europeu : PE (pt)  (Bruxelles + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)

7 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

FORMER YUGOSLAVIA European Community Monitor Mission in the Former Yugoslavia : ECMM  (Zagreb)Local: European Community Monitor Mission in the Former Yugoslavia : ECMM (en)  (Zagreb)
NEUTRAL TERRITORY Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr) + FAISAIEN Uhartea o Konpantzia (eu)  (Konpantzia)
PREVLAKA United Nations Protection Force in Prevlaka : UNPROFOR  (Prevlaka)Local: United Nations Protection Force in Prevlaka : UNPROFOR (en) + Forces de Protection des Nations-Unies à Prevlaka : FORPRONU (fr)  (Prevlaka)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Settlements in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
UPPER MUNDAT Enclave of UPPER MUNDAT : Obermundat Enclave  (Reisdorf)Local: Enclave de la FORÊT DE L''OBERMUNDAT (fr) + OBERE MUNDATWALD Gebiet (de)  (Reisdorf)

10 Governments in Exile

AHWAZ AHWAZ Liberation Organization  (Maastricht) Faleh Abdullah Al-Mansouri
COMMUNIST PHILIPPINES National Democratic Front of PHILIPPINES  (Utrecht) Jose Maria Sison
COPTS Coptic Government in Exile : COPTIC Pharaonic Republic  (Langen) Fayez Nagib
FREE CUNANI Free State of CUNANI in Exile  (Paris) Interregnum
FREE IRAN National Council of Resistance of Iran : Democratic Republic of IRAN in Exile  (Auvers on Oise + Ashraf City) President Maryam Rajavi
NGUYEN NGUYEN Dynasty in Exile  (Paris) Emperor Bao Dai
ROYAL-LAOS Royal Lao Government in Exile : Monarchy of LAOS  (Paris) Crown Prince Soulivong Savang
SOUTH MOLUCCAS Government in Exile of the Republic of SOUTH MOLUCCAS  (Rotterdam) President Frans Tutuhatunewa
WEST PAPUA Free and Independent WEST PAPUA in Exile  (Amersfoort) President Moses Werror

19 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

BALTIC SEA Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission : HELCOM  (Helsinki)
BALTIC SEA STATES Council of The Baltic Sea States : CBSS  (Stockholm)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
ENERGY Organization of the Energy Charter Conference : ECC  (The Hague)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EUROCORPS European Corps : EUROCORPS  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
GROUP OF SEVEN GROUP OF SEVEN Industrialized Nations  (Tokyo)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Geneva)
IUCN World Conservation Union : International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization : NASCO  (Edinburgh)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
OSPAR Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft : OSPAR Convention  (Paris)
SOUTH PACIFIC TOURISM Tourism Council of the South Pacific : TCSP  (Suva)
TRACECA Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia : TRACECA  (Baku)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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