ethnia.org   
 

2007-JAN-01

Zones: Timeline

European Union : EU
(Brussels a + Luxembourg City j + Strasbourg l)

European Union : EU

Flag or logo since 1986-05-26*
Evropeyski Sayuz : ES - Европейски съюз : EC (bg) + Evropská Unie : EU (cs) + Den Europæiske Union : EU (da) + Europäische Union : EU (de) + Europaïki Enosi : EE - Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση : EE (el) + European Union : EU (en) + Unión Europea : UE (es) + Euroopa Liit : EL (et) + Euroopan Unioni : EU (fi) + Union Européenne : EU (fr) + An tAontas Eorpach : AE (ga) + Európai Unió : EU (hu) + Unione Europea : UE (it) + Europos Sąjunga : ES (lt) + Eiropas Savienība : ES (lv) + Unjoni Ewropea : UE (mt) + Europese Unie : EU (nl) + Unia Europejska : UE (pl) + União Europeia : UE (pt) + Uniunea Europeană : UE (ro) + Európska Únia : EÚ (sk) + Evropska Unija : EU (sl) + Europeiska Unionen : EU (sv) UNO Observer
Emblem or Symbol*

Jose Manuel Barroso
(ruler of EUROPEAN UNION since 2004-11-22)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Brussels a + Luxembourg City j + Strasbourg l
(Bruxelles + Ville de Luxembourg + Strasbourg)
a administrative, national or political capital (also ruler's residence)
j judicial capital
l legislative or parliamentary capital, seat of government
Official & national languages: Bulgarian (bg) . Czech (cs) . Danish (da) . German (de) . Greek (el) . English (en) . Spanish (es) . Estonian (et) . Finnish (fi) . French (fr) . Irish Gaelic (ga) . Hungarian (hu) . Italian (it) . Lithuanian (lt) . Latvian (lv) . Maltese (mt) . Dutch (nl) . Polish (pl) . Portuguese (pt) . Romanian (ro) . Slovak (sk) . Slovenian (sl) . Swedish (sv) .

Mainland:


EUROPEAN UNION European Union : EU  (Brussels + Luxembourg City + Strasbourg)


27 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

AUSTRIA Republic of AUSTRIA  (Vienna) President Heinz Fischer
BELGIUM Kingdom of BELGIUM  (Brussels) King Albert II
BULGARIA Republic of BULGARIA  (Sofia) President Georgi Parvanov
CYPRUS Republic of CYPRUS  (Nicosia) President Tassos Papadopoulos
CZECHIA CZECH Republic  (Prague elr + Brno dj + Lany r) President Vaclav Klaus
DANMARK Kingdom of DENMARK  (Copenhagen) Queen Margaret II
ESTONIA Republic of ESTONIA  (Tallinn a + Tartu b) President Toomas Hendrik Ilves
EUROPEAN FRANCE French Republic : FRANCE  (Paris) President Jacques Chirac
FINLAND Republic of FINLAND  (Helsinki a + Kultaranta s) President Tarja Halonen
GERMANY Federal Republic of GERMANY  (Berlin ar + Bonn lr + Carlsruhe d) Bundespresident Horst Koehler
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London a + Westminster lr + Edinburgh s + Windsor r) Queen Elizabeth II
GREECE HELLENIC Republic [Greek Republic]  (Athens a) President Karolos Papoulias
HOLLAND Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS  (Amsterdam a + The Hague l + Wassenaar r) Queen Beatrix
HUNGARY HUNGARIAN Republic [Republic of Hungary]  (Budapest) President Laszlo Solyom
IRELAND Republic of IRELAND  (Dublin) President Mary McAleese
ITALY Italian Republic : ITALY  (Rome) President Giorgio Napolitano
LATVIA Republic of LATVIA  (Riga) President Vaira Vike-Freiberga
LITHUANIA Republic of LITHUANIA  (Vilnius) President Valdas Adamkus
LUXEMBOURG Grand Duchy of LUXEMBOURG  (Luxembourg City) Grand Duke Henri
MALTA Republic of MALTA  (Valletta a + Attard r + Siggiewi s) President Edward Fenech-Adami
POLAND Republic of POLAND  (Warsaw) President Lech Kaczynski
PORTUGAL PORTUGUESE Republic  (Lisbon) President Anibal Cavaco Silva
ROMANIA State of ROMANIA  (Bucharest) President Traian Basescu
SLOVAKIA SLOVAK Republic  (Bratislava a + Kosice d) President Ivan Gasparovic
SLOVENIA Republic of SLOVENIA  (Ljubljana) President Janez Drnovsek
SPAIN Kingdom of SPAIN  (Madrid) King Juan Carlos I
SWEDEN Kingdom of SWEDEN  (Stockholm) King Charles XVI Gustav


10 Assisted Entities

ALAND ALAND Autonomous Country  (Mariehamn) President Tarja Halonen
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old a + (La Seu d´Urgell) r) Coprince Joan Enric Vives Sicilia
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Republic of BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA [European Union Peacekeeping Force in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina]  (Sarajevo) President Nebojsha Radmanovich
HOLY SEE State of Vatican City : HOLY SEE  (Vatican City) Pope Benedictus XVI
MONACO Principality of MONACO  (Monaco q) Prince Albert II
MONTENEGRO Republic of MONTENEGRO  (Podgoritsa a + Cetinje hr) President Filip Vujanovich
NORTHERN CYPRUS Turkish Republic of NORTHERN CYPRUS  (Nicosia-North) President Mehmet Ali Talat
ORDER OF MALTA Sovereign Military Order of SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM OF RHODES AND OF MALTA  (Magistral Palace y + Via Condotti b) Grandmaster Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie
PADANIA Provisional Government of the Federal Republic of PADANIA [Nominally Independent Self-declared State]  (Milan a + Venice b) Umberto Bossi
SAN MARINO Most Serene Republic of SAN MARINO  (San Marino) Captains-Regent



6 Territories:

CURIA European Court of Justice : ECJ  (Luxembourg City)Local: Evropeĭski Sŭd : ES - Европейски Cъд : EC (bg) + Evropský Soudní Dvůr : ESD (cs) + Europæisk Domstol : EU-DOMSTOLEN (da) + Europäischer Gerichtshof : EGH (de) + Dikastírio ton Evropaïkón Koinotíton : DEK - Δικαστήριο των Ευρωπαϊκών Κοινοτήτων : ΔEΚ (el) + European Court of Justice : ECJ (en) + Corte de Justicia Europea : CJE (es) + Euroopa Kohus : EK (et) + Euroopan Yhteisöjen Tuomioistuin : EYT (fi) + Cour de Justice Européenne : CJE (fr) + Cúirt Bhreithiúnais na hEorpa : CBE (ga) + Európai Bíróság : EB (hu) + Corte di Giustizia Europea : CGE (it) + Europos Teisingumo Teismas : ETT (lt) + Eiropas Kopienu Tiesa : EKT (lv) + Qorti Ewropea tal-Ġustizzja : QEĠ (mt) + Europees Hof van Justitie : EHJ (nl) + Europejski Trybunał Sprawiedliwości : ETS (pl) + Corte da Justiça Européia : CJE (pt) + Curtea Europeană de Justiție : CEJ (ro) + Európsky Súdny Dvor : ESD (sk) + Evropsko Sodišče : (sl) + Europeiska Domstolen : EU-DOMSTOLEN (sv)  (Ville de Luxembourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Investment Bank : EIB  (Luxembourg City-Kirchberg)Local: Europäische Investitionsbank : EIB (de) + European Investment Bank : EIB (en) + Banque Européenne d´Investissement : BEI (fr)  (Ville de Luxembourg-Kirchberg)
EUROPEAN COMMISSION European Commission : EC  (Brussels-Berlaymont)Local: Europäische Kommission : EK (de) + European Commission : EC (en) + Commission Européenne : CE (fr)  (Bruxelles-Berlaymont)
EUROPEAN COUNCIL Council of the European Union : EUROPEAN COUNCIL  (Brussels)Local: Sŭvet na Evropeĭskiya Sŭyuz : SES - Съвет на Европейския съюз : СEС (bg) + Rada Evropské unie : REU (cs) + Rådet for Den Europæiske Union : REU (da) + Rat der Europäischen Union : REU (de) + Symvoúlio tis Evropaïkís Énosis : SEÉ - Συμβούλιο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης : ΣΕΈ (el) + Council of the European Union : CEU (en) + Consejo de la Unión Europea : CUE (es) + Euroopa Liidu Nõukogu : ELN (et) + Euroopan unionin neuvosto : EUN (fi) + Conseil de l´Union européenne : CUE (fr) + Comhairle an Aontais Eorpaigh : CAE (ga) + Az Európai Unió Tanácsa : EUT (hu) + Consiglio dell´Unione europea : CUE (it) + Europos Sąjungos Taryba : EST (lt) + Eiropas Savienības Padome : ESP (lv) + Kunsill ta ´l-Unjoni Ewropea : KUE (mt) + Raad van de Europese Unie : REU (nl) + Rada Unii Europejskiej : RUE (pl) + Conselho da União Européia : CUE (pt) + Consiliul Uniunii Europene : CUE (ro) + Rada Európskej únie : REU (sk) + Svet Evropske unije : SEU (sl) + Europeiska unionens råd : EUR (sv)  (Bruxelles)
EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY High Representation for Common Foreign and Security Policy : CFSP  (Brussels)Local: High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy : CFSP (en)  (Bruxelles)
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EUROPEAN Parliament  (Strasbourg + Brussels + Luxembourg City)Local: Evropeĭskiyat parlament : Evroparlamentŭt : EP - Европейският парламент : Европарламентът : ЕП (bg) + Evropský Parlament : EP (cs) + Europa-Parlamentet : EP (da) + Europäisches Parlament : EP (de) + Evropaïkó Koinovoúlio : EK - : Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο : ΕΚ (el) + European Parliament : EP (en) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (es) + Euroopa Parlament : EP (et) + Euroopan Parlamentti : EP (fi) + Parlement Européen : PE (fr) + Parlaimint na hEorpa : PE (ga) + Európai Parlament : EP (hu) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (it) + Europos Parlamentas : EP (lt) + Eiropas Parlaments : EP (lv) + Parlament Ewropew : PE (mt) + Europees Parlement : EP (nl) + Parlament Europejski : PE (pl) + Parlamento Europeu : PE (pt) + Parlamentul European : PE (ro) + Európsky Parlament : EP (sk) + Evropski Parlament : EP (sl) + Europaparlamentet : EP (sv)  (Strasbourg + Bruxelles + Ville de Luxembourg)

13 Condominiums:

CANFRANC RAILWAY STATION Franco-Spanish International Convention on Trans-Pyrenean Railways : CANFRANC INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY STATION  (Canfranc International Railway Station)Local: Convención Franco-Española sobre Ferrocarriles Transpirenaicos : ESTACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE CANFRANC (es) + Convention franco-espagnole relative aux Chemins de Fer Transpyrénéens : GARE INTERNATIONALE DE CANFRANC (fr)  (Estación Internacional de Canfranc)
CEUTA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE CEUTA (es)  (Valla de Ceuta)
EUPOL KINSHASA European Union Police Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo : EUPOL KINSHASA  (Eupol Kinshasa)Local: Mission de police européenne en République démocratique du Congo : EUPOL-KINSHASA (fr)  (Eupol Kinshasa)
FORT SAINT ANGELO FORT SAINT ANGELO Leased Territory  (Fort Saint Angelo)Local: Territorju tal-FORTIZZA SANT´ANĠLU (mt) + FORT SAINT ANGELO Territory (en) + Territorio di FORT SANT´ANGELO (it)  (Forti Sant´Anġlu)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
MELILLA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of MELILLA BORDER FENCE  (Melilla Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE MELILLA (es)  (Valla de Melilla)
MOLDAUHAFEN Leased Territory of MOLDAUHAFEN  (Moldauhafen)Local: Vltavský Přístav : MOLDAUHAFEN (cs) + Zone der MOLDAUHAFEN (de)  (Moldauhafen)
PARSLEY ISLAND Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Leila)Local: Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Laila)
PHEASANTS´ ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS´ ISLAND [Condominium of Conference Island]  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l´ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr) + FAISAIEN Uhartea o Konpantzia (eu)  (Konpantzia)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
UNFICYP ZONE United Nations Monitored Buffer Zone on Attila Line : United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus-UNFICYP  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)Local: United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus : UNFICYP (en) + Force des Nations Unies chargée du maintien de la paix à Chypre : UNFICYP (fr) + Paremvallómeni̱ Grammí̱ tou Organismós I̱no̱méno̱n Ethnó̱n sti̱n Kýpro : NEKRI ZONI - Παρεμβαλλόμενη γραμμή του Οργανισμός Ηνωμένων Εθνών στην Κύπρο : NEKPH ZῼNH (el) + Kıbrıs´taki Birleşmiş Milletler Barış Gücü : ATTILA HATTI (tr)  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)
UPPER MUNDAT Enclave of UPPER MUNDAT : Obermundat Enclave  (Reisdorf)Local: Enclave de la FORÊT DE L´OBERMUNDAT (fr) + OBERE MUNDATWALD Gebiet (de)  (Reisdorf)



17 Governments or Movements in Exile

AHWAZ Democratic Solidarity Party of Al-Ahwaz : ARABISTAN  (Maastricht + London) (Faleh Abdullah Al-Mansouri)
ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA-in-Exile  (Paris) Prince Philippe
CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front  (Copenhagen) Mishake Muyongo
CHAMERIA Democratic Foundation of CHAMERIA  (The Hague) Festim Lato
COPTS Government-in-Exile of the COPTIC Pharaonic Republic  (Langen) Fayez Nagib
DANZIG Government-in-Exile of the Free State of DANZIG  (Frankfort on the Main + Noble Park) Ernst Kriesner
EQUATORIAL GUINEA-IN-EXILE Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea : Government of EQUATORIAL GUINEA-IN-EXILE  (Madrid) President Severo Moto
FREE CUNANI Free State of CUNANI-in-Exile  (Paris) Interregnum
FREE IRAN Democratic Republic of IRAN-IN-EXILE [National Council of Resistance of Iran]  (Auvers on Oise + Ashraf City) President Maryam Rajavi
HUKLANDIA National Democratic Front of PHILIPPINES  (Utrecht) Jose Maria Sison
LAPITHOS AND KYTHREA LAPITHOS AND KYTHREA Municipal Councils-in-Exile  ((Nicosia)) Municipal Councils
NGUYEN NGUYEN Dynasty-in-Exile  (Paris) Crown Prince Nguyen Phuc Bao Long
ROYAL-LAOS Royal Lao Government-in-Exile : Monarchy of LAOS  (Paris + Gresham) Crown Prince Soulivong Savang
SOUTH MOLUCCAS Government-in-Exile of the Republic of SOUTH MOLUCCAS  (Rotterdam) President Frans Tutuhatunewa
TALISHTAN TALYSH National Movement  (Amsterdam) Alikram Gumbatov
TAMAZGHA World AMAZIGH Congress : World Organization of the Berber People  (Paris) Belkacem Lounes
WEST PAPUA-NEW GUINEA Republic of WEST PAPUA-NEW GUINEA-in-Exile  (Amersfoort) President Tom Beanal



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

BALKANS European Union Monitoring Mission in the BALKANS : EUMM BALKANS  (Zagreb)Local: European Union Monitoring Mission in the BALKANS : EUMM BALKANS (en)  (Zagreb)
FRANCO-GERMAN BRIGADE FRANCO-GERMAN Brigade  (Muellheim)Local: DEUTSCH-FRANZÖSICHE Brigade (de) + Brigade FRANCO-ALLEMANDE (fr)  (Müllheim)
GERMAN WAR GRAVES German War Graves Commission : GWGC  (Kassel)Local: Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge : VDK (de)  (Kassel)
GREEK CYPRUS Hellenic Force in CYPRUS  (Nicosia)Local: Ellinikí Dýnami Kýprou : ELDYK - Ελληνική Δύναμη Κύπρου : ΕΛΔΥΚ (el) + Kıbrıs Yunan Alayı : KYA (tr)  (Lefkosia)
HORN OF AFRICA Operation Enduring Freedom-HORN OF AFRICA  (Camp Lemonnier)Local: Operation Enduring Freedom-Horn of Africa : OEF-HOA (en)  (Camp Lemonnier)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
NATO GREECE Nato Deployable Corps GREECE  (Thessalonica)Local: Nato Deployable Corps GREECE (en)  (Thessaloniki)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
TUZLA BASE TUZLA Air Base  (Tuzla Air Base)Local: TUZLA Air Base (en)  (Tuzla Air Base)


39 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICA-EUROPE Africa-European Union Dialogue : AEUD  (Cairo)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Helsinki + Singapore)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
BALTIC SEA Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission : HELCOM  (Helsinki)
BALTIC SEA STATES Secretariat of the Council of The Baltic Sea States : CBSS  (Stockholm)
CANADA-EUROPE Canada-European Union Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement : TIEA  (Ottawa)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
DANUBE RIVER International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River : ICPDR  (Vienna)
ENERGY Energy Charter Treaty : ECT  (Lisbon)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EURO-MEDITERRANEAN Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly : EMPA  (Barcelona)
EUROCORPS European Corps : EUROCORPS  (Strasbourg)
EUROPE-JAPAN European Union-Japan Mutual Recognition Agreement : EUJ-MRA  (Brussels + Tokyo)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
EUROPEAN ENERGY Energy Community : EC  (Vienna)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FRANCE-AFRICA Conference of Heads of State of Africa and France : FRANCE-AFRICA Summit  (Bamako)
GROUP OF EIGHT GROUP OF EIGHT Industrialized Nations  (Strelna)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors  (Melbourne)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION International Space Station : ISS  (Baikonur + Merritt Island)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Cadarache)
KOREAN PENINSULA Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : KEDO  (New York City)
MERCOSUR-EUROPE Mercosur European Union : MERCOSUR-EU  (Brussels)
MEXICO-EUROPE Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union : FTA EU-MX  (Brussels)
NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization : NASCO  (Edinburgh)
NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic : OSPAR Convention  (Sintra)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTHERN BLUEFIN TUNA Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna : CCSBT  (Canberra)
TRANSATLANTIC ZONE TRANSATLANTIC Partnership Agreement between European Union and United States  (Brussels + Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN FISHERIES Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean : Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission : WCPFC  (Kolonia on Ponape)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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