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2013-JUL-01

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European Union : EU
(Brussels)

European Union : EU

Flag or logo since 1986-05-26
Evropeyski Sayuz : ES - Европейски съюз : EC (bg) + Evropská Unie : EU (cs) + Den Europæiske Union : EU (da) + Europäische Union : EU (de) + Europaïki Enosi : EE - Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση : EE (el) + European Union : EU (en) + Unión Europea : UE (es) + Euroopa Liit : EL (et) + Euroopan Unioni : EU (fi) + Union Européenne : EU (fr) + An tAontas Eorpach : AE (ga) + Europska Unija : EU (hr) + Európai Unió : EU (hu) + Unione Europea : UE (it) + Europos Sąjunga : ES (lt) + Eiropas Savienība : ES (lv) + Unjoni Ewropea : UE (mt) + Europese Unie : EU (nl) + Unia Europejska : UE (pl) + União Europeia : UE (pt) + Uniunea Europeană : UE (ro) + Európska Únia : EÚ (sk) + Evropska Unija : EU (sl) + Europeiska Unionen : EU (sv)
Emblem or Symbol

President Herman Van Rompuy
(ruler of EUROPEAN UNION since 2009-12-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Brussels(Bruxelles)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


EUROPEAN UNION European Union : EU  (Brussels)


28 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Territories

AUSTRIA Republic of AUSTRIA  (Vienna) President Heinz Fischer
BELGIUM Kingdom of BELGIUM  (Brussels) King Albert II
BULGARIA Republic of BULGARIA  (Sofia) President Rosen Plevneliev
CROATIA Republic of CROATIA  (Zagreb) President Ivo Josipovich
CYPRUS Republic of CYPRUS  (Nicosia) President Nicos Anastasiades
CZECHIA CZECH Republic  (Prague + Brno) President Milos Zeman
DANMARK Kingdom of DENMARK  (Copenhagen) Queen Margaret II
ESTONIA Republic of ESTONIA  (Tallinn + Tartu) President Toomas Hendrik Ilves
FINLAND Republic of FINLAND  (Helsinki + Kultaranta) President Sauli Niinisto
FRANCE METROPOLITAN FRENCH Republic  (Paris) President Francois Hollande
GERMANY Federal Republic of GERMANY  (Berlin + Bonn + Karlsruhe) Bundespresident Joachim Gauck
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London) Queen Elizabeth II
GREECE HELLENIC Republic : Greek Republic  (Athens) President Karolos Papoulias
HOLLAND Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS  (Amsterdam + The Hague) King Willem-Alexander
HUNGARY State of HUNGARY  (Budapest) President Janos Ader
IRELAND Republic of IRELAND  (Dublin) President Michael Daniel Higgins
ITALY Italian Republic : Republic of ITALY  (Rome) President Giorgio Napolitano
LATVIA Republic of LATVIA  (Riga) President Andris Berzins
LITHUANIA Republic of LITHUANIA  (Vilnius) President Dalia Grybauskaite
LUXEMBOURG Grand Duchy of LUXEMBOURG  (Luxembourg) Grand Duke Henri
MALTA Republic of MALTA  (Valletta) President George Abela
POLAND Republic of POLAND  (Warsaw) President Bronislaw Komorowski
PORTUGAL PORTUGUESE Republic  (Lisbon) President Anibal Cavaco Silva
ROMANIA Republic of ROMANIA  (Bucharest) President Traian Basescu
SLOVAKIA SLOVAK Republic  (Bratislava) President Ivan Gasparovic
SLOVENIA Republic of SLOVENIA  (Ljubljana) President Borut Pahor
SPAIN Kingdom of SPAIN  (Madrid) King Juan Carlos I
SWEDEN Kingdom of SWEDEN  (Stockholm) King Charles XVI Gustav


9 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Enric Vives Sicilia
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Republic of BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (European Union Peacekeeping Force in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina)  (Sarajevo) President Nebojsha Radmanovich
HOLY SEE State of Vatican City : HOLY SEE  (Vatican) Pope Francis I
KOSOVO Independent Republic of KOSOVO (UNMIK-European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo)  (Prishtina) President Atifete Jahjaga
MONACO Principality of MONACO  (Monaco) Prince Albert II
MONTENEGRO Republic of MONTENEGRO  (Podgoritsa + Cetinje) President Filip Vujanovich
NORTHERN CYPRUS Turkish Republic of NORTHERN CYPRUS  (Nicosia-North) President Dervis Eroglu
ORDER OF MALTA Sovereign Military Order of SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM OF RHODES AND OF MALTA  (Magistral Palace + Via Condotti) Grandmaster Matthew Festing
SAN MARINO Most Serene Republic of SAN MARINO  (San Marino) Captains-Regent



8 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

CEUTA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE CEUTA (es)  (Valla de Ceuta)
EUNAVFOR ATALANTA European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA  ((Djibouti))Local: European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA (en) + Force navale européenne sur les Côtes de Somalie : EUNAVFOR ATALANTE (fr)  ((Djibouti))
EUTM MALI European Union Training Mission in Mali : EUTM MALI  (Bamako)Local: European Union Training Mission in Mali : EUTM MALI (en) + Mission de formation de l''Union européenne au Mali : EUTM MALI (fr)  (Bamako)
EUTM SOMALIA European Union Training Mission in Somalia : EUTM SOMALIA  (Bihanga)Local: European Union Training Mission in Somalia : EUTM SOMALIA (en)  (Bihanga)
FORT SAINT ANGELO FORT SAINT ANGELO Leased Territory  (Fort Saint Angelo)Local: Territorju tal-FORTIZZA SANT''ANĠLU (mt) + FORT SAINT ANGELO Territory (en) + Territorio di FORT SANT''ANGELO (it)  (Forti Sant''Anġlu)
KASUKU Belgo-Congolese Programme of Military Partnership in KASUKU Camp  (Camp Kasuku)Local: Programme de Partenariat Militaire : PPM (fr)  (Camp Kasuku)
MELILLA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of MELILLA BORDER FENCE  (Melilla Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE MELILLA (es)  (Valla de Melilla)
PARSLEY ISLAND Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Leila)Local: Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Laila)

3 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

CYPRUS BUFFER ZONE UNFICYP-United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus : United Nations Monitored BUFFER ZONE on Attila Line  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)Local: UNFICYP-United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus : United Nations Monitored BUFFER ZONE (en) + UNFICYP-Force des Nations-Unies chargée du maintien de la paix à Chypre : ZONE TAMPON des Nations-Unies (fr) + Paremvallómeni̱ Grammí̱ tou Organismós I̱no̱méno̱n Ethnó̱n sti̱n Kýpro : NEKRI ZONI - Παρεμβαλλόμενη γραμμή του Οργανισμός Ηνωμένων Εθνών στην Κύπρο : NEKPH ZῼNH (el) + Kıbrıs''taki Birleşmiş Milletler Barış Gücü : ATTILA HATTI (tr)  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)
EUMM GEORGIA European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia : EUMM GEORGIA  (Tbilisi)Local: European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia : EUMM GEORGIA (en)  (T''bilisi)
EUPOL AFGHANISTAN European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan : EUPOL AFGHANISTAN  (Eupol Kabul)Local: European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan : EUPOL AFGHANISTAN (en) + Mission de police de l''Union européenne en Afghanistan : EUPOL AFGHANISTAN (fr)  (Eupol Kabul)

6 Territories in Europe:

CONSILIUM Council of the European Union : EUROPEAN COUNCIL  (Brussels)Local: Sŭvet na Evropeĭskiya Sŭyuz : SES - Съвет на Европейския съюз : СEС (bg) + Rada Evropské unie : REU (cs) + Rådet for Den Europæiske Union : REU (da) + Rat der Europäischen Union : REU (de) + Symvoúlio tis Evropaïkís Énosis : SEÉ - Συμβούλιο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης : ΣΕΈ (el) + Council of the European Union : CEU (en) + Consejo de la Unión Europea : CUE (es) + Euroopa Liidu Nõukogu : ELN (et) + Euroopan unionin neuvosto : EUN (fi) + Conseil de l''Union européenne : CUE (fr) + Comhairle an Aontais Eorpaigh : CAE (ga) + Vijeće Europske unije : VEU (hr) + Az Európai Unió Tanácsa : EUT (hu) + Consiglio dell''Unione europea : CUE (it) + Europos Sąjungos Taryba : EST (lt) + Eiropas Savienības Padome : ESP (lv) + Kunsill ta ''l-Unjoni Ewropea : KUE (mt) + Raad van de Europese Unie : REU (nl) + Rada Unii Europejskiej : RUE (pl) + Conselho da União Européia : CUE (pt) + Consiliul Uniunii Europene : CUE (ro) + Rada Európskej únie : REU (sk) + Svet Evropske unije : SEU (sl) + Europeiska unionens råd : EUR (sv)  (Bruxelles)
CURIA Court of Justice of the European Union : CJEU  (Luxembourg)Local: Cour de Justice de l''Union Européenne : CJUE  (Luxembourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Investment Bank : EIB  (Luxembourg-Kirchberg)Local: Europäische Investitionsbank : EIB (de) + European Investment Bank : EIB (en) + Banque Européenne d''Investissement : BEI (fr)  (Luxembourg-Kirchberg)
EUROPEAN COMMISSION European Commission : EC  (Brussels-Berlaymont)Local: Europäische Kommission : EK (de) + European Commission : EC (en) + Commission Européenne : CE (fr)  (Bruxelles-Berlaymont)
EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY High Representation of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy : HRU  (Brussels)Local: Vŭrkhoven predstavitel na Evropeĭskiya sŭyuz po vŭprosite na vŭnshnite raboti i politikata na sigurnost : VPES - Върховен представител на Европейския съюз по въпросите на външните работи и политиката на сигурност : ВПЕС (bg) + Vysoký představitel Unie pro zahraniční věci a bezpečnostní politiku : VPU (cs) + Europæiske Union''s højtstående repræsentant for udenrigsanliggender og sikkerhedspolitik : EUHR (da) + Hohe Vertreter der Europäischen Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik : HV (de) + Ýpatos Ekprósopos tis Énosis gia thémata Exoterikís Politikís kai Politikís Asfaleías : ÝEÉ - Ύπατος Εκπρόσωπος της Ένωσης για θέματα Εξωτερικής Πολιτικής και Πολιτικής Ασφαλείας : ΎEΈ (el) + High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy : HRU (en) + Alto representante de la Unión para Asuntos Exteriores y Política de Seguridad : AR (es) + Euroopa Liidu välisasjade ja julgeolekupoliitika kõrge esindaja : ELV (et) + Unionin ulkoasioiden ja turvallisuuspolitiikan korkea edustaja : EUH (fi) + Haute Représentation de l''Union pour les Affaires Étrangères et la Politique de Sécurité : HRU (fr) + Ardionadaí an Aontais do Ghnóthaí Eachtracha agus don Bheartas Slándála : AAGE  (Bruxelles)
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EUROPEAN Parliament  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)Local: Evropeĭskiyat parlament : Evroparlamentŭt : EP - Европейският парламент : Европарламентът : ЕП (bg) + Evropský Parlament : EP (cs) + Europa-Parlamentet : EP (da) + Europäisches Parlament : EP (de) + Evropaïkó Koinovoúlio : EK - : Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο : ΕΚ (el) + European Parliament : EP (en) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (es) + Euroopa Parlament : EP (et) + Euroopan Parlamentti : EP (fi) + Parlement Européen : PE (fr) + Parlaimint na hEorpa : PE (ga) + Europski Parlament : EP (hr) + Európai Parlament : EP (hu) + Parlamento Europeo : PE (it) + Europos Parlamentas : EP (lt) + Eiropas Parlaments : EP (lv) + Parlament Ewropew : PE (mt) + Europees Parlement : EP (nl) + Parlament Europejski : PE (pl) + Parlamento Europeu : PE (pt) + Parlamentul European : PE (ro) + Európsky Parlament : EP (sk) + Evropski Parlament : EP (sl) + Europaparlamentet : EP (sv)  (Bruxelles + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)

12 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

FRENCH BASES IN GERMANY French Forces and Civilian Elements stationed in GERMANY  (Muellheim)Local: Forces françaises et éléments civils stationnés en ALLEMAGNE (fr) + Französisch Truppen und zivilen stationierte Elemente in DEUTSCHLAND (de)  (Müllheim)
JOHN FITZERALD KENNEDY MEMORIAL Land of JOHN FITZERALD KENNEDY MEMORIAL  (Runnymede)Local: Land of JOHN FITZERALD KENNEDY MEMORIAL (en)  (Runnymede)
MOLDAUHAFEN Leased Territory of MOLDAUHAFEN  (Moldauhafen)Local: Vltavský Přístav : MOLDAUHAFEN (cs) + Zone der MOLDAUHAFEN (de)  (Moldauhafen)
NATO GREECE Nato Deployable Corps GREECE  (Thessalonica)Local: Nato Deployable Corps GREECE (en)  (Thessaloniki)
NORTH KOSOVO Community of the Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of KOSOVO AND METOCHIA (UNMIK-European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo)  (Kosovska Mitrovitsa)Local: Autonomna Pokrajina KOSOVO I METOHIJA : Аутономна Покрајина КОСОВО И МЕТОХИJA (sr)  (Kosovska Mitrovica)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr) + FAISAIEN Uhartea o Konpantzia (eu)  (Konpantzia)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Settlements in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
SIGA Unclaimed Territory of SIGA  (Siga)Local: SIGA Teritorij (hr) + SIGA Teritorija : СИГА Територија (sr)  (Siga)
SOUDA BAY Naval Base of SOUDA BAY  (Souda Bay)Local: Nafstathmos KRITIS : Ναύσταθμος ΚΡΗΤΗΣ (el) + Naval Support Activity SOUDA BAY (en)  (Kólpos Soúdas)
UPPER MUNDAT Enclave of UPPER MUNDAT : Obermundat Enclave  (Reisdorf)Local: Enclave de la FORÊT DE L''OBERMUNDAT (fr) + OBERE MUNDATWALD Gebiet (de)  (Reisdorf)




20 Governments in Exile

AHWAZ Democratic Solidarity Party of Al-Ahwaz for an Emirate of ARABISTAN  (Maastricht + London) (Faleh Abdullah Al-Mansouri)
ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Prince Philippe
BALAWARISTAN GILGIT-BALTISTAN Democratic Alliance  (Brussels) Abdul Hamid Khan
CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE Free State of CAPRIVI STRIP-ITENGE : Itengese Government-in-Exile of the Caprivi Liberation Front  (Copenhagen) President Edward Ndopu
CHAMERIA Democratic Foundation of CHAMERIA  (The Hague) Festim Lato
COMMUNIST PHILIPPINES National Democratic Front of PHILIPPINES  (Utrecht) Jose Maria Sison
COPTS Coptic Government in Exile : COPTIC Pharaonic Republic  (Langen) Fayez Nagib
DANZIG Government in Exile of the Free State of DANZIG  (Frankfort on the Main + Noble Park) Ernst Kriesner
EQUATORIAL GUINEA IN EXILE Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea : Government of EQUATORIAL GUINEA IN EXILE  (Madrid) President Severo Moto
FREE IRAN National Council of Resistance of Iran : Democratic Republic of IRAN in Exile  (Auvers on Oise) President Maryam Rajavi
IRANIAN OPPOSITION National Council of IRAN  (Paris + Potomac) Prince Reza Shah Pahlavi II
KABYLIA Provisional Government of KABYLIA  (Paris) President Ferhat Mehenni
LAPITHOS AND KYTHREA LAPITHOS AND KYTHREA Municipal Councils in Exile  ((Nicosia)) Municipal Councils
NGUYEN NGUYEN Dynasty in Exile  (Paris) Prince Nguyen Phuc Bao Thang
ROYAL-LAOS Royal Lao Government in Exile : Monarchy of LAOS  (Paris + Gresham) Crown Prince Soulivong Savang
SOUTH MOLUCCAS Government in Exile of the Republic of SOUTH MOLUCCAS  (Rotterdam) President John Wattilete
TALISHTAN TALYSH National Movement  (Amsterdam) Alikram Gumbatov
TAMAZGHA World AMAZIGH Congress  (Paris) Fathi Ben Khalifa
WEST PAPUA-NEW GUINEA Republic of WEST PAPUA-NEW GUINEA in Exile  (Amersfoort) President Tom Beanal
WESTERN ARMENIA Government of WESTERN ARMENIA in Exile  (Paris) Tigran Pashabezyan



41 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICA-EUROPE Africa-European Union Partnership : AEUP  (Addis Ababa)
AFRICA-FRANCE Conference of Heads of State of Africa and France : AFRICA-FRANCE Summit  (Nice)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Vientiane + Singapore)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
BALTIC SEA Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission : HELCOM  (Helsinki)
BALTIC SEA STATES Secretariat of the Council of The Baltic Sea States : CBSS  (Stockholm)
CANADA-EUROPE CANADA-EUROPEAN UNION Summit  (Prague)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
DANUBE RIVER International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River : ICPDR  (Vienna)
ENERGY Energy Charter Treaty : ECT  (Woluwe-Saint Lambert)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EUROCORPS European Corps : EUROCORPS  (Strasbourg)
EUROPE-JAPAN Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and Japan : FTA-EUJ  (Brussels + Tokyo)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
EUROPEAN ENERGY Energy Community : EC  (Vienna)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
GROUP OF EIGHT GROUP OF EIGHT Industrialized Nations  (Lough Erne)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Summits  (Moscow + Cancun)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION International Space Station : ISS  (Baikonur + Merritt Island)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Abu Dhabi + Masdar City)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Cadarache)
KOREAN PENINSULA Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : KEDO  (New York City)
MERCOSUR-EU Interregional Cooperation Framework Agreement between Mercosur and the European Union : MERCOSUR-EU  (Brussels)
NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization : NASCO  (Edinburgh)
NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic : OSPAR Convention  (Sintra)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE Regional Cooperation Council : RCC  (Sarajevo)
SOUTHERN BLUEFIN TUNA Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna : CCSBT  (Canberra)
TRANSATLANTIC ZONE Transatlantic Economic Council : TEC  (Brussels)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
WESTERN AND CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN FISHERIES Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean : Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission : WCPFC  (Kolonia on Ponape)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-AUG-06.