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1918-AUG-26

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French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire : FRANCE (Paris)  President Raymond Poincare
German Occupied Territories in NORTHEASTERN FRANCE : NORTHEASTERN FRANCE (Maubeuge) 

Alternate Entities with similar names

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire PCA Member

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr)
Emblem or Symbol

President Raymond Poincare
(ruler of FRANCE since 1913-02-18)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Paris(Paris)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)



14 Assisted Entities

AGADEZ Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air : Sultanate of AGADEZ Vassal of France  (Agades) Amenokal Ibrahim Ad-Dusuqi bin Ahmad Ar-Raffa
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Baptista Benlloch i Vivo
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Ali Mirah
CZECHOSLOVAKIA CZECH National Council : Czechoslovak Corps  (Paris) Tomas Garrigue Masaryk
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD Tributary of Aussa  (Debne) Sultan Unda Loitah Anfare
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation under French Suzerainty  (Abalessa) Amenokal Musa ag Amastan
MONACO Principality of MONACO  (Monaco) Prince Albert I
MOROCCO Protectorates in the Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO  (Rabat) Sultan Mulay Yusef
NORTHERN RUSSIA High Administration of NORTHERN Region : Supreme Administration of Northern Region  (Murmansk) Nikolay Chaikovsky
SIBERIA Provisional SIBERIAN Government  (Omsk) Peter Vologodsky
TRANSBAIKAL Great Mongol State : TRANSBAIKAL Provisional Government  (Chita) Grigory Semionov
TUNISIA Autonomous Regency of TUNIS : French Protectorate of the Tunisian Regency  (Tunis) Muhammad V An-Nasir Bey
URAL Provisional Provincial Government of URAL Region  (Ekaterinburg) Pyotr Ivanov
VOLGA-URAL Independent State of IDEL-URAL : Volga-Ural  (Kazan) Sadreddin Maxudov



10 Territories in Africa:

CASABLANCA Province of CASABLANCA  (Casablanca)Local: Province de CASABLANCA (fr) + Muhafazah DAR EL-BEIDA : محافظة البيضاء (ar)  (Casablanca)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Government-General of the FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d''AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TOGOLAND Zone of FRENCH TOGOLAND  (Aneho)Local: Zone du TOGOLAND FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Aného)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l''ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaines français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)

3 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

CAMEROON Occupied Military Territories of FORMER CAMEROON  (Duala)Local: Territoires occupés de l''ANCIEN CAMEROUN (fr) + Occupied Territories of FORMER CAMEROON (en)  (Douala)
CITY OF TANGIER CITY OF TANGIER International Protectorate  (Tangier)Local: CITY OF TANGIER International Protectorate (en) + Protectorado Internacional de la CIUDAD DE TÁNGER (es) + Protectorat international de la VILLE DE TANGER (fr) + MEDINA TANJAH at-Ahmahmah مدينة طنجة الدولية محمية (ar)  (Tanger)
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire : French Protectorate of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l''Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)

4 Territories in Americas:

FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Americas:

GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)

2 Territories in Antarctica:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Claimed ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
PETER THE FIRST ISLAND Unclaimed Territory of PETER THE FIRST ISLAND  ((Paris))Local: Île Pierre Ier : ÎLE PIERRE-PREMIER (fr)  ((Paris))

6 Territories in Asia:

FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : National Domain of France in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye Saint Mary of the Resurrection of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Tombeau des Rois + Monastère d''Eléona + Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d''Abou Gosh)

11 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

CHANTABOR French Sphere of Influence in CHANTABOR Circle  (Chantabor)Local: Monthon CHANTHA BURI : มณฑลจันทบุรี (th)  (Muang Chantha Buri)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
CHELYABINSK CHELYABINSK Uyezd  (Chelyabinsk)Local: CHELYABINSKIY Uyezd : ЧЕЛЯБИНСКИЙ Уезд (ru)  (Chelyabinsk)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Sphere of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Sphere of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
PAKHOI Concessions of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Concessions de PAK-HOI  (Pak-Hoi)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER (en) + Commission administrative du Quartier Diplomatique à Pékin : QUARTIER DES LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)

6 Territories in Europe:

ALBANIAN FRONTIER ALBANIAN Military Frontier Regions  (Scutari)Local: Territoire militaire des CONFINS ALBANAIS (fr)  (Scutari)
FRENCH EASTERN FRONT FRENCH EASTERN FRONT Military Territories  (Kilkis)Local: Territoires militaires du FRONT ORIENTAL (fr)  (Kilkis)
KASTELLORIZO French Governorate of KASTELLORIZO  (Kastellorizo)Local: Gouvernorat français de CASTELLORIZO (fr)  (Castellorizo)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Settlements in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

7 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS Greek Administration of IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS  (Panagia Palomeni + Tenedos)Local: Greek Administration of IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS  (Panagia Palomeni + Tenedos)
IONIAN ISLANDS French Allied Occupied IONIAN ISLANDS Department  (Corcyra)Local: Département des ÎLES IONIENNES (fr) + IONIAN ISLANDS Department (en) + Diamerismata IONION NÍSON : Διαμερισματα ΙΟΝΙΩΝ ΝΗΣΩΝ (el)  (Kérkyra)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SAINT ADRESSE Extraterritorial Zone of the BELGIAN Government in Exile  (Saint Adresse)Local: Zone d''extraterritorialité du Gouvernement BELGE en exil (fr) + Extraterritoriale Zone van de BELGISCHE Regering in ballingschap (nl) + Exterritoriale Zone von der BELGISCHEN Regierung im Exil (de)  (Sainte-Adresse)
STRAITS ZONE British Allied Occupied ZONE OF THE STRAITS  (Thessalonica)Local: Allied Occupied ZONE OF THE STRAITS (en) + ZONE DES DÉTROITS occupée par les Alliés (fr)  (Thessalonica)
VOLGA Czechoslovak White Russian Occupied VOLGA Region  (Samara)Local: POVOLZHSKIY Kray : ПОВОЛЖСКИЙ Kрай (ru)  (Samara)

1 Territory in Oceania:

PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Oceania:

CHRISTMAS CHRISTMAS ISLAND Propriety  (London Village on Christmas)Local: CHRISTMAS ISLAND Propriety (en) + Propriété de l''ÎLE CHRISTMAS (fr)  (London Village sur Christmas)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)



30 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR LAW CODE Conference on International AIR LAW CODE  (Paris)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS ALLIED Entente Powers : Supreme War Council  (Versailles)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Electrotechnical Commission : IEC  (London)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Christiania)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Congress of POLICE  (Monaco)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
MOROCCO-AMERICA MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)
NATIONS General Association of NATIONS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
NAVAL CONFERENCE London NAVAL Conference  (London)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Petrograd)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
OPIUM International Opium Convention : IOC  (The Hague)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TRIPLE ENTENTE TRIPLE ENTENTE Agreement  (London)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



9 Governments in Exile

ALBANIA-TOPTANI National Assembly of ALBANIA in Exile  (Paris) Esad Pasha Toptani
ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Antoine III
BELGIUM IN EXILE Kingdom of BELGIUM IN EXILE  (Saint Adresse + The Panne) King Albert I
CUNANI Republic of CUNANI in Exile  (Souain) President Adolph Brezet
MONTENEGRO IN EXILE Kingdom of MONTENEGRO IN EXILE  (Neuilly on Seine) King Nicholas I Petrovich-Njegosh
POLAND IN EXILE Polish National Committee : POLISH Kingdom in Exile  (Paris) Roman Dmowski
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO Union of SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO  (Corcyra) King Peter I Karageorgevich
SERBIA IN EXILE SERBIAN Government in Exile  (Corcyra) King Peter I Karageorgevich
TRIPOLITANIA IN EXILE Vilayet of TRIPOLITANIA in Exile  (Tunis) Osman Fuad Pasha




Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
ALSACE-LORRAINE Autonomous Territory of ALSACE-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
AMERICAN FORCES IN EUROPE American Expeditionary Forces in EUROPE  (Chaumont in Bassigny)
BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Thiepval)
NORTHEASTERN FRANCE German Occupied Territories in NORTHEASTERN FRANCE  (Maubeuge)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
SAINT ADRESSE Extraterritorial Zone of the BELGIAN Government in Exile  (Saint Adresse)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND Mexican Dependency of CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Clipperton)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.