ethnia.org
 

1926-APR-01

Zones:

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr) SDN Member
Emblem or Symbol

Frederic Francois-Marsal
(ruler of FRANCE since 1924-06-11)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

ALSACE-MOSELLE Departments of ALSACE-MOSELLE  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)Local: Départements d''ALSACE-MOSELLE (fr)  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)



10 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Justi Guitart i Vilardebo
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Anfari
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Unda Loitah Anfare
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Akhamuk ag Ihemma
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protectorate]  (Monaco) Prince Louis II
MOROCCO Protectorates in the Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO  (Rabat) Sultan Mulay Yusef
SAAR BASIN League of Nations Mandate of the Territory of THE SAAR BASIN  (Saarbrucken) Peter Scheuer
TANGIER TANGIER International Zone  (Tangier) Sultan Mulay Yusef
TIBESTI Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TUNISIA Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Tunisian Regency]  (Tunis) Muhammad VI Al-Habib Bey



24 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Sector of ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: Secteur français de la TERRE ADÉLIE (fr)  ((Paris))
CASABLANCA Province of CASABLANCA  (Casablanca)Local: Province de CASABLANCA (fr) + Muhafazah DAR EL-BEIDA : محافظة البيضاء (ar)  (Casablanca)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Government-General of the FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d''AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH RHINELAND French Inter-Allied RHINELAND Commission  (Treves)Local: Commission interalliée française de RHÉNANIE (fr)  (Trier)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

19 Condominiums:

CHANTABOR French Zone of Influence in CHANTABOR Circle  (Chantabor)Local: Monthon CHANTHA BURI : มณฑลจันทบุรี (th)  (Muang Chantha Buri)
FRENCH CAMEROON League of Nations Mandate of FRENCH CAMEROON  (Yaounde)Local: Territoire du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Yaoundé)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
FRENCH LEVANT STATES High Commission of the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : FRENCH LEVANT STATES  (Beirut)Local: Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban : ÉTATS DU LEVANT FRANÇAIS (fr) + Al-Intidab al-Firansi fi SURIYA WA LUBNAN : الانتداب الفرنسي في سوريا و لبنان (ar)  (Beyrouth)
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire : French Protectorate of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l''Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)
FRENCH TOGOLAND League of Nations Mandate of FRENCH TOGOLAND Territory  (Lome)Local: Territoire du TOGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Lomé)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Zone of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Zone of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
ORTENAU Arrondissement of ORTENAU  (Offenburg)Local: Landkreis ORTENAU  (Offenburg)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PAK-HOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) + Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Pak-Hoi)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER (en) + Commission administrative du Quartier Diplomatique à Pékin : QUARTIER DES LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + Eradi CHEIK-SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS Franco-Spanish International Convention on TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS  (Canfranc)Local: Convención Franco-Española sobre FERROCARRILES TRANSPIRENAICOS (es) + Convention franco-espagnole relative aux CHEMINS DE FERS TRANSPYRÉNÉENS (fr)  (Canfranc)

Dependent Protectorates:

ADRAR French Protectorate of ADRAR Emirate  (Atar)Local: Emirat ADARAR : إميرات آدرار (ar) + Émirat de l''ADRAR (fr)  (Atar)
ANNAM French Protectorate of the Empire of ANNAM  (Hue)Local: Empire d''ANNAM (fr) + Đế Quốc AN NAM - Trung Kỳ : 中圻 (vi)  (Huê)
BAGHIRMI French Protectorate of BAGHIRMI Sultanate  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
CAMBODIA Kingdom of CAMBODIA [French Protectorate]  (Phnom Penh)Local: Royaume du CAMBODGE (fr) + Preah Reach Ana Pak KAMPUCHEA : ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (km)  (Phnom Penh)
CHAMPASACK Principality of CHAMPASACK [French Protectorate]  (Pakse)Local: Principauté de CHAMPASSAC (fr) + Negara CHAMPASAKTI : อาณาจักรล้านช้างจำปาศักดิ์ (lo)  (Paksé)
DASA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASA  (Dasa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba DASSA (idd)  (Dassa)
INDOCHINESE UNION Government-General of Indochina : French Protectorate of the INDOCHINESE UNION  (Hanoi)Local: Protectorat français de l''UNION INDOCHINOISE (fr)  (Hanoï)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
LAOS French Protectorate of LAOS  (Vientiane)Local: Protectorat français du LAOS (fr) + LAO : ລາວ (lo)  (Viengchan)
LUANG PHRABANG French Protectorate of the Kingdom of LUANG PHRABANG  (Luangphrabang)Local: Royaume de LUANG PHRABANG (fr) + Anachak LUANG PHRABANG : ອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ (lo)  (Luangphrabang)
RAFAI French Protectorate of the Zande Sultanate of RAFAI  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (zne)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Protectorate of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES  (Fort Laperrine)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Fort Laperrine)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TONKIN French Protectorate of TONKIN  (Hanoi)Local: Protectorat du TONKIN (fr) + Bảo hộ BắC Kỳ - Bắc Bộ : 北圻 (vi)  (Hanoï)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)



9 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Antoine III
ARMENIANS-IN-EXILE ARMENIAN Organizations in Exile  ((Echmiadzin) + Beirut + Marseilles + New York City) George V Sourenian
AZERBAIJAN IN EXILE Association of AZERBAIJANI Emigrants  (Paris) Alimardan bey Topchubashov
COMMUNIST CHINA Communist Party of CHINA in the First United Front Alliance with Kuomintang  (Shanghai French Concession) Chen Tu-Hsiu
GEORGIA IN EXILE National Government of GEORGIA IN EXILE  (Leuville on Orge) Noe Zhordania
KAJARS KAJAR Dynasty of Persia in Exile  (Neuilly on Seine) Soltan Ahmad Shah Kajar
KOREA IN EXILE Provisional Government of the Republic of KOREA IN EXILE  (Shanghai French Concession) PM Lee Sang-Yong
UKRAINIA Ukrainian People''s Republic in Exile : UKRAINE STATE in Exile  (Paris) President Simon Petliura
WHITE RUSSIA WHITE RUSSIAN Movement in Exile  (Santeny) Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich



Military entities abroad or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)


44 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
AMBASSADORS Conference of AMBASSADORS of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers  (Paris)
ATCCT Advisory and Technical Committee for Communications and Transit : ATCCT  (Geneva)
CTW Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children : CTW  (New York City)
DANUBE International Danube Commission : European Commission of the Danube : ECD  (Galatsi)
EFO Economic and Financial Organization of the League of Nations : EFO  (Brusells)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-POLISH ALLIANCE FRANCO-POLISH Warrant Agreement  (Locarno)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GENOA AGREEMENT GENOA Economic Agreement on the Global Monetary Order  (Genoa)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HCR League of Nations High Commission for Refugees : HCR  (Berne)
ICAN International Commission for Air Navigation : ICAN  (Paris)
ICIC International Commission on Intellectual Co-operation : ICIC  (Geneva)
IHB International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB Specialized Agency  (Monaco)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Criminal Police Commission : ICPC  (Vienna)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS League of Nations Covenant : LON  (Geneva)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Paris)
LITTLE ENTENTE Collective Defense Treaties between Czechoslovakia The Kingdom of Rumania and The Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes : LITTLE ENTENTE  (Belgrade + Bucharest)
LNHO League of Nations Health Organization : LNHO  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
MOROCCO-AMERICA MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)
NAVAL CONFERENCE Geneva NAVAL Conference  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PAN-EUROPA Paneuropean Movement : PAN-EUROPA Movement  (Vienna)
PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice : PCIJ  (The Hague)
PCOB Permanent Central Opium Board : PCOB  (Geneva)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
SLAVERY League of Nations Temporary SLAVERY Commission  (Geneva)
STANDARDS International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations : ISA  (New York City + Geneva)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TOURISM International Congress of Official Tourist Traffic Associations : ICOTT  (The Hague)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Romagne-sous-Montfaucon)
BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Thiepval)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND Mexican Dependency of CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Clipperton)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
VIMY MEMORIAL Canadian Territory of VIMY MEMORIAL  (Vimy)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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