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1940-MAY-10

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FRANCE (Paris) SDN Member French Republic : FR [French Colonial Empire] : President Albert Lebrun
GERMAN FRANCE (Western Front)  German Military Governorate of FRANCE :

Other Entities with similar names

French Republic : FR [French Colonial Empire]
(Paris)

French Republic : FR [French Colonial Empire]

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
République française : RF (fr) SDN Member
Emblem or Symbol*

President Albert Lebrun
(ruler of FRANCE since 1932-05-10)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Divisions:

ALSACE-MOSELLE Departments of ALSACE-MOSELLE  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)Local: Départements d''ALSACE-MOSELLE (fr)  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)



9 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Ricardo Fornesa i Puigdemasa
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Akhamuk ag Ihemma
LEBANON Autonomous LEBANESE Republic [League of Nations Mandate under French Protectorate]  (Beirut) President Emile Edde
LEVANT STATES High Commission of the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : LEVANTINE STATES  (Beirut) President Albert Lebrun
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protectorate]  (Monaco) Prince Louis II
MOROCCO Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO [French and Spanish Protectorates]  (Rabat) Sultan Muhammad V
SYRIA State of SYRIA [League of Nations Mandate under French Protectorate]  (Damascus) Bahij Bey al-Khatib
TANGIER TANGIER International Zone  (Tangier) Sultan Muhammad V
TUNISIA French Protectorate of TUNISIA  (Tunis) Ahmad II bin Ali Bey



19 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Sector of ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: Secteur français de la TERRE ADÉLIE (fr)  ((Paris))
CASABLANCA Province of CASABLANCA  (Casablanca)Local: Province de CASABLANCA (fr) + Muhafazah DAR EL-BEIDA : محافظة البيضاء (ar)  (Casablanca)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Government-General of the FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d''AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE City of Paris Property of HAUTEVILLE HOUSE  (Victor Hugo Home)Local: Domaine de HAUTEVILLE HOUSE Propriété de la Ville de Paris (fr)  (Maison de Victor Hugo)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
THEATER ATLANTIC WEST French Possessions in The Americas : THEATER ATLANTIC WEST [High Commission of the Republic in the Antilles and French Guiana]  (Fort of France)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans les Antilles et la Guyane française : THÉÂTRE ATLANTIQUE OUEST (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

19 Condominiums:

CANFRANC RAILWAY STATION CANFRANC Railway Station  (Canfranc Railway Station)Local: Estación Internacional de CANFRANC (es)  (Estación de Canfranc)
FRENCH CAMEROON Territory of FRENCH CAMEROON [League of Nations Mandate under French Administration]  (Yaounde)Local: Territoire du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Yaoundé)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment of Odent in CHUNGKING  (Odent)Local: Établissement de la Marine française d''Odent à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Odent)
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire : French Protectorate of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l''Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)
FRENCH TOGOLAND FRENCH TOGOLAND Territory [League of Nations Mandate]  (Lome)Local: Territoire du TOGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Lomé)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
LOFOTEN COAST British Allied Occupied LOFOTEN COAST  (Harstad)Local: LOFOTEN District (en) + LOFOTEN Distrikt (nb) + LOFOTEN Distrikt (nn)  (Harstad)
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Government-General of the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Allied Protectorate]  (Willemstad)Local: Allied Protectorate in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES (en) + Protectorat allié des ANTILLES NÉERLANDAISES (fr) + Gebiedsdeel van NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN (nl)  (Willemstad)
NEW HEBRIDES Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: NEW HEBRIDES Condominium (en) + Condominium des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PAKLAY ZONE Franco-Thai Demilitarized Free Zone : PAKLAY ZONE  (Muang Paklay)Local: Zone démilitarisée FRANCO-THAÏLANDAISE (fr) + K̄het Plxdthh̄ār F̄Rạ̀NGṣ̄ES̄-THịY : เขตปลอดทหารฝรั่งเศส - ไทย (th)  (Muang Paklay)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Chinese Controlled Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
RUANDA-URUNDI Province of RUANDA-URUNDI [League of Nations Mandate administered from Belgian Congo]  (Usumbura)Local: Province du RUANDA-URUNDI (fr) + Provincie ROEANDA-OEROENDI (nl)  (Usumbura)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE SUEZ CANAL ZONE under British Protection [Suez Canal Company]  (Port Suez)Local: Suez Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie du Canal de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr) + Muhafazah QANAT AS-SUWAIS : محافظة قناة السويس (ar)  (Port Suez)

Dependent Protectorates:

ANNAM Empire of ANNAM [French Protectorate]  (Hue)Local: Empire d''ANNAM (fr) + Đế Quốc AN NAM - Trung Kỳ : 中圻 (vi)  (Huê)
BAGHIRMI French Protectorate of BAGHIRMI Sultanate  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
CAMBODIA Kingdom of CAMBODIA [French Protectorate]  (Phnom Penh)Local: Royaume du CAMBODGE (fr) + Preah Reach Ana Pak KAMPUCHEA : ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (km)  (Phnom Penh)
CHAMPASACK Principality of CHAMPASACK [French Protectorate]  (Pakse)Local: Principauté de CHAMPASSAC (fr) + Negara CHAMPASAKTI : อาณาจักรล้านช้างจำปาศักดิ์ (lo)  (Paksé)
DASA Yoruba Kingdom of DASA [French Protectorate]  (Dasa)Local: Royaume de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
FRENCH INDOCHINA French Government-General of the Indochinese Union : FRENCH INDOCHINA [French Protectorate]  (Hanoi + Dalat)Local: Union indochinoise : INDO-CHINE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Hanoï + Da Lat)
KETU Yoruba State of KETU [French Protectorate]  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
LAOS French Protectorate of LAOS  (Vientiane)Local: Protectorat français du LAOS (fr) + LAO : ລາວ (lo)  (Viengchan)
LUANG PHRABANG French Protectorate of the Kingdom of LUANG PHRABANG  (Luangphrabang)Local: Royaume de LUANG PHRABANG (fr) + Anachak LUANG PHRABANG : ອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ (lo)  (Luangphrabang)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
SAVI HWEDA Fon State of SAVI HWEDA [French Protectorate]  (Whydah)Local: État de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Territory of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES [French Protectorate]  (Fort Laperrine)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Fort Laperrine)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TONKIN French Protectorate of TONKIN  (Hanoi)Local: Protectorat du TONKIN (fr) + Bảo hộ BắC Kỳ - Bắc Bộ : 北圻 (vi)  (Hanoï)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
UPPER IVORY COAST UPPER IVORY COAST Region [French Residency]  (Wagadugu)Local: Région de la HAUTE-CÔTE D''IVOIRE (fr)  (Ouagadougou)



12 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Antoine III
ARMENIANS-IN-EXILE ARMENIAN Organizations in Exile  (Beirut + Marseilles + New York City) George VI Cheorekdzhian
CATALONIA IN EXILE National Council of Catolonia in Exile : Generality of CATALONIA  (Paris) President Lluis Companys
COSSACKIA COSSACK National Liberation Movement  (Algiers + Prague) (Ignat Arkhipovich Bilyi)
CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN EXILE CZECHOSLOVAK National Committee  (Paris) Jan Sramek
FREE BELGIUM BELGIAN Government in Exile  (Paris) King Leopold III
GEORGIA IN EXILE National Government of GEORGIA IN EXILE  (Leuville on Orge) Noe Zhordania
HABSBURG HABSBURG Monarchy  (Bordeaux) Archduke Otto of Habsburg-Lorraine
LUXEMBURG IN EXILE Grand Duchy of LUXEMBURG in Exile  (Paris) Grand Duchess Charlotte
POLAND IN EXILE Government of the Republic of POLAND IN EXILE  (Angers + Polish Resistance) President Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz
SPAIN IN EXILE SPANISH Republican Government in Exile  (Paris) PM Juan Negrin Lopez
WHITE RUSSIA WHITE EMIGRES Organizations Outside Russia  (Belgrade + Berlin + Istanbul + Paris) Metropolitan Anastasius



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)
REGGAN British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in FRENCH ALGERIA  (Tinoulef)Local: British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in FRENCH ALGERIA (en)  (Tinoulef)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
STATION ISMAILIA Royal Air Force STATION ISMAILIA  (Station Ismailia)Local: Royal Air Force STATION ISMAILIA (en)  (Station Ismailia)


40 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS Anglo French Supreme War Council : INTER-ALLIED Supreme Council  (London)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
DANUBE International Danube Commission : European Commission of the Danube : ECD  (Galatsi)
EFO Economic and Financial Organization of the League of Nations : EFO  (Brusells)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-POLISH ALLIANCE Kasprzycki-Gamelin Convention : FRANCO-POLISH Alliance  (Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GENOA AGREEMENT GENOA Economic Agreement on the Global Monetary Order  (Genoa)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
ICAN International Commission for Air Navigation : ICAN  (Paris)
IGCR High Commission for Refugees : Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees : IGCR  (Berne)
IHB International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB Specialized Agency  (Monaco)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Criminal Police Commission : ICPC  (Vienna)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS League of Nations Covenant : LON  (Geneva)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
LNHO League of Nations Health Organization : LNHO  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Lausanne)
OCT Organization for Communication and Transit : OCT  (Geneva)
OIC Organization of Intellectual Cooperation : OIC  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PAN-AMERICAN HEALTH Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA PANEUROPEAN Movement : Paneuropean Union in Exile  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice : PCIJ  (The Hague)
PCOB Permanent Central Opium Board : PCOB  (Geneva)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
STANDARDS International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations : ISA  (New York City + Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATION International Telecommunication Union : ITU  (Berne)
TOURISM International Union of National Tourist Propaganda Organizations : IUNTPO  (The Hague)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Romagne-sous-Montfaucon)
BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Thiepval)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast)
GERMAN FRANCE German Military Governorate of FRANCE  (Western Front)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
VIMY MEMORIAL Canadian National VIMY MEMORIAL  (Vimy)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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