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1944-AUG-25

Zones: Timeline


BELGIUM-NORTHERN FRANCE (Brussels) De facto Semi-Independent Imperial Commissariat for the Occupied Territories of Belgium and Northern France : Imperial Commissariat of BELGIUM-NORTHERN FRANCE : Joseph Grohe
FRANCE ((Paris)) SDN Member Provisional Government of the French Republic : PGFR [French Colonial Empire] : General Charles de Gaulle
NORTHERN FRANCE (Paris)  Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE :
OCCUPIED ZONES (Lille)  German Military Administration for France : OCCUPIED ZONES :
FRENCH STATE (Belfort + Sigmaringen) Ex SDN MemberRebellionExile French Delegation : FRENCH STATE in Exile : Marshal Philippe Petain

Other Entities with similar names

Provisional Government of the French Republic : PGFR [French Colonial Empire]
((Paris))

Provisional Government of the French Republic : PGFR [French Colonial Empire]

Flag or logo since 1944-08-25*
Gouvernement provisoire de la République française : GPRF (fr) SDN Member
Emblem or Symbol*

General Charles de Gaulle
(ruler of FRANCE since 1940-06-22)
Capital:(Paris) - ((Paris))
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FIGHTING FRANCE Provisional Government of the FRENCH Republic  ((Paris))

24 Divisions:

ARDECHE Department of ARDECHE  (Privas)Local: Département de l´ARDÈCHE (fr)  (Privas)
ARIEGE Department of ARIEGE  (Foix)Local: Département de l´ARIÈGE (fr)  (Foix)
AUDE Department of AUDE  (Carcassonne)Local: Département de l´AUDE (fr)  (Carcassonne)
AVEYRON Department of AVEYRON  (Rodez)Local: Département de l´AVEYRON (fr)  (Rodez)
CANTAL Department of CANTAL  (Aurillac)Local: Département du CANTAL (fr)  (Aurillac)
CORREZE Department of CORREZE  (Tulle)Local: Département de la CORRÈZE (fr)  (Tulle)
CORSICA Department of CORSICA  (Ajaccio)Local: Département de la CORSE (fr)  (Ajaccio)
CREUSE Department of CREUSE  (Gueret)Local: Département de la CREUSE (fr)  (Guéret)
DORDOGNE Department of DORDOGNE  (Perigueux)Local: Département de la DORDOGNE (fr)  (Périgueux)
EASTERN PYRENEES Department of EASTERN PYRENEES  (Perpignan)Local: Département des PYRÉNÉES-ORIENTALES (fr)  (Perpignan)
GARD Department of GARD  (Nimes)Local: Département du GARD (fr)  (Nîmes)
GERS Department of GERS  (Auch)Local: Département du GERS (fr)  (Auch)
GIRONDE Department of GIRONDE  (Bordeaux)Local: Département de la GIRONDE (fr)  (Bordeaux)
LANDES Department of LANDES  (Mont-de-Marsan)Local: Département des LANDES (fr)  (Mont-de-Marsan)
LOT Department of LOT  (Cahors)Local: Département du LOT (fr)  (Cahors)
LOT AND GARONNE Department of LOT AND GARONNE  (Agen)Local: Département de LOT-ET-GARONNE (fr)  (Agen)
LOWER PYRENEES Department of LOWER PYRENEES  (Pau)Local: Département des BASSES-PYRÉNÉES (fr)  (Pau)
LOZERE Department of LOZERE  (Mende)Local: Département de la LOZÈRE (fr)  (Mende)
TARN Department of TARN  (Albi)Local: Département du TARN (fr)  (Albi)
TARN AND GARONNE Department of TARN AND GARONNE  (Montauban)Local: Département du TARN-ET-GARONNE (fr)  (Montauban)
UPPER GARONNE Department of UPPER GARONNE  (Toulouse)Local: Département de la HAUTE-GARONNE (fr)  (Toulouse)
UPPER LOIRE Department of UPPER LOIRE  (Le Puy)Local: Département de la HAUTE-LOIRE (fr)  (Le Puy)
UPPER PYRENEES Department of UPPER PYRENEES  (Tarbes)Local: Département des HAUTES-PYRÉNÉES (fr)  (Tarbes)
UPPER VIENNE Department of UPPER VIENNE  (Limoges)Local: Département de la HAUTE-VIENNE (fr)  (Limoges)



4 Assisted Entities

HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Meslar ag Amayas
LEBANON LEBANESE Republic  (Beirut) President Bechara El-Khoury
MOROCCO Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO [French and Spanish Protectorates]  (Rabat) Sultan Muhammad V
TUNISIA TUNISIAN Regency [French Protectorate Administration of the Anglo-American Occupation]  (Tunis) Muhammad VIII Al-Amin Bey



13 Territories:

FEZZAN-GHADAMES French Military Territory of FEZZAN-GHADAMES [French Protectorate]  (Sabha)Local: Territoire militaire français du FEZZAN-GHADAMÈS (fr)  (Sebha)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l´ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d´AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l´INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH TUNISIA Protectorate of FRENCH TUNISIA  (Kef)Local: Protectorat français de TUNISIE (fr) + Al-Ḥimāyah al-Fransiyyah fī TŪNIS : الحماية الفرنسية في تونس (ar)  (Le Kef)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Dakar)Local: Fédération de l´AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Dakar)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND Free French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français libres en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d´Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d´Abou Gosh)
MARTINIQUE French Colony of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Colonie française de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Papeete)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l´OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Pape´ete)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)

17 Condominiums:

FRENCH CAMEROON Autonomous Territory of FRENCH CAMEROON [League of Nations Mandate under French Administration]  (Duala)Local: Territoire autonome du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Douala)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment of Odent in CHUNGKING  (Odent)Local: Établissement de la Marine française d´Odent à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Odent)
FRENCH LEVANT Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : FRENCH LEVANT  ((Beirut))Local: Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban : LEVANT FRANÇAIS (fr) + Residency for Lebanon and Syria : FRENCH LEVANT (en)  ((Beyrouth))
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l´Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TOGO FRENCH TOGO Territory  (Lome)Local: Territoire du TOGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Lomé)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of FRENCH MADAGASCAR  (Tananarive)Local: Gouvernorat-général de MADAGASCAR FRANÇAISE (fr) + General Governorate of FRENCH MADAGASCAR (en)  (Tananarive)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)Local: Colonie française de NOUVELLE-CALÉDONIE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Nouméa)
NEW HEBRIDES Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: NEW HEBRIDES Condominium (en) + Condominium des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
NORMANDY Canadian Forces in NORMANDY  (Caen)Local: Forces canadiennes en NORMANDIE (fr) + Canadian Forces in NORMANDY (en)  (Caen)
NORTHERN FRANCE Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE  (Paris)Local: Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE (en) + Gouvernement Militaire Allié des Territoires Occupés en FRANCE (fr)  (Paris)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PHEASANTS´ ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS´ ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l´ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l´Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de la Réunion)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE SUEZ CANAL ZONE [Suez Canal Company under British Protection]  (Port Suez)Local: Suez Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie du Canal de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr) + Muhafazah QANAT AS-SUWAIS : محافظة قناة السويس (ar)  (Port Suez)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Colony of WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Colonie française des ÎLES WALLIS ET FUTUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Uvéa)

Dependent Protectorates:

BAGHIRMI BAGHIRMI Sultanate [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
DASA Yoruba Kingdom of DASA [French Protectorate]  (Dasa)Local: Royaume de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
KETU Yoruba State of KETU [French Protectorate]  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
SAVI HWEDA Fon State of SAVI HWEDA [French Protectorate]  (Whydah)Local: État de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Territory of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES [French Protectorate]  (Ain Sefra + Ghardaia + Wargla + Tuggurt)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Aïn Séfra + Ghardaïa + Ouargla + Touggourt)
TAGANIT Emirate of TAGANIT [French Protectorate]  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TRARZA Emirate of TRARZA [French Protectorate]  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
UPPER IVORY COAST UPPER IVORY COAST Region [French Residency directly administered from Ivory Coast]  (Wagadugu)Local: Région de la HAUTE-CÔTE D´IVOIRE (fr)  (Ouagadougou)



4 Governments or Movements in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Antoine III
COSSACKIA COSSACK National Liberation Movement  (Paris + Prague) Ignat Arkhipovich Bilyi
GEORGIA IN EXILE National Government of GEORGIA IN EXILE  (Leuville on Orge) Noe Zhordania
WHITE RUSSIA WHITE EMIGRES Organizations Outside Russia  (Berlin + Istanbul + Paris) Metropolitan Anastasius



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

ABU SUEIR Royal Air Force ABU SUEIR  (Abu Sueir)Local: Royal Air Force ABU SUEIR (en)  (Abu Suweir)
BORA BORA American Base of BORA BORA  (Vaitape)Local: Base américaine de BORA-BORA (fr)  (Vaïtapé)
ESPIRITU SANTO BASE United States Naval Advance Base ESPIRITU SANTO  (Base Camp Annex Espiritu Santo)Local: Naval Advance Base ESPIRITU SANTO (en)  (Base Camp Annex Espiritu Santo)
FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l´étranger (fr)  (Paris)
NOUASSEUR NOUASSEUR Air Base  (Nouasseur)Local: NOUASSEUR Air Base (en) + Base aérienne de NOUASSEUR (fr)  (Nouasseur)


38 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS Military Defence Pact of THE ALLIED POWERS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
EFO Economic and Financial Organization of the League of Nations : EFO  (Brusells)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
ICAN International Commission for Air Navigation : ICAN  (Paris)
IGCR High Commission for Refugees : Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees : IGCR  (Berne)
IHB International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB Specialized Agency  (Monaco)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Washington Conversations on INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Organization : Dumbarton Oaks Conference  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Criminal Police Commission : ICPC  (Berlin)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS League of Nations Covenant : LON  (Geneva)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
LNHO League of Nations Health Organization : LNHO  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Lausanne)
OCT Organization for Communication and Transit : OCT  (Geneva)
OIC Organization of Intellectual Cooperation : OIC  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PAN-AMERICAN HEALTH Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA PANEUROPEAN Movement : Paneuropean Union in Exile  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice : PCIJ  (The Hague)
PCOB Permanent Central Opium Board : PCOB  (Geneva)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
STANDARDS International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations : ISA  (New York City + Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATION International Telecommunication Union : ITU  (Berne)
TOURISM International Union of National Tourist Propaganda Organizations : IUNTPO  (The Hague)
UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS of The Allied Powers  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration : UNRRA  (Washington-District of Columbia)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FRENCH STATE French Delegation : FRENCH STATE in Exile  (Belfort + Sigmaringen)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADELIE LAND French Sector of ADELIE LAND  ((Port Couvreux))
ALO Tua Kingdom : Traditional Kingdom of ALO  (Malae)
ALSACE Civil Territory of ALSACE  (Strasbourg)
AMSTERDAM ISLAND French Possession of AMSTERDAM ISLAND  (New Amsterdam)
ATLANTIC WALL Littoral Military Zone : ATLANTIC WALL  (Saint Nazaire)
AUSTRAL AND ANTARCTIC LANDS Territories of AUSTRAL AND ANTARCTIC LANDS  (Port Couvreux)
BASSAS DA INDIA French Dependency of BASSAS DA INDIA  (Bassas da India)
BORA BORA American Base of BORA BORA  (Vaitape)
CANAQUIA CANAQUE Chiefdoms  (Noumea)
CHAUSEY ISLANDS Archipelago of CHAUSEY ISLANDS  (Grande Ile)
CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS Dependencies of CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS  (Chesterfield)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND CLIPPERTON Island [American Occupation]  (Port Hueneme)
CROZET ISLANDS French Nature Reserve of CROZET ISLANDS  (Crozet)
DREHU DREHU Traditional Area  (We on Lifu)
EUROPA ISLAND French Dependency of EUROPA ISLAND  (Europa)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast)
GLORIOSO ISLANDS French Dependency of GLORIOSO ISLANDS  (Greater Glorioso)
HORN ISLANDS HORN ISLANDS Group : Futuna  (Malae + Leava)
HUNTER ISLAND Dependency of HUNTER ISLAND  (-)
HUON AND SURPRISE ISLANDS Dependencies of HUON AND SURPRISE ISLANDS : Atolls of D´Entrecasteaux Reefs  (Huon)
ISLE OF PINES French Possession of ISLE OF PINES : High Chiefdom of Kunie  (Gadji)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Colony of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Juan de Nova)
KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO French Possession of KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO  (Port Couvreux)
LITTORAL ZONE Forbidden LITTORAL Military Zone  (Toulon)
LORRAINE Civil Territory of LORRAINE  (Metz)
LOYALTY ISLANDS Dependencies of LOYALTY ISLANDS  (We on Lifu)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Dependency of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
NENGONE NENGONE Traditional Area  (Tadin)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)
NORMANDY Canadian Forces in NORMANDY  (Caen)
NORTHERN FRANCE Territory of NORTHERN FRANCE  (Lille)
NORTHERN FRANCE Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE  (Paris)
OCCUPIED ZONES German Military Administration for France : OCCUPIED ZONES  (Lille)
OMAHA BEACH American Temporary Cemetery on European Soil : AMERICAN CEMETERY in Omaha Beach  (Vierville)
OUEN ISLAND OUEN ISLAND Chiefdom  (Ouara)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)
ROYA VALLEY Communes of ROYA VALLEY  (Tenda + Briga)
SAINT PAUL AND AMSTERDAM ISLANDS French Colony of SAINT PAUL AND AMSTERDAM ISLANDS  (New Amsterdam)
SAINT PAUL ISLAND French Possession of SAINT PAUL ISLAND  (Saint Paul)
SIGAVE Traditional Kingdom of SIGAVE  (Leava)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
UVEA Traditional Kingdom of UVEA  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Colony of WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
WALLIS ARCHIPELAGO WALLIS ARCHIPELAGO Group  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
WALPOLE ISLAND Dependency of WALPOLE ISLAND  (Walpole)
WALPOLE MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Dependencies of WALPOLE MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS  (Walpole)
WESTLAND Zone of Intended German Settlement : WESTLAND Forbidden Zone  (Nancy)
YAI YAI Traditional Area  (Fayawe)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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