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1954-JUL-21

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French Republic : FRENCH UNION
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH UNION UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1944-08-25
République française : UNION FRANÇAISE (fr)
Emblem or Symbol

President Rene Coty
(ruler of FRENCH UNION since 1954-01-16)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Paris(Paris)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


FRENCH UNION French Republic : FRENCH UNION  (Paris)


3 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

FRANCE French Republic : FR  (Paris) President Rene Coty
SAARLAND High Commission of the French Republic in The Saar : Autonomous State of SAARLAND  (Saarbrucken) President Rene Coty
SOUTH VIETNAM Associated State of VIETNAM  (Saigon) Bao Dai


9 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Ramon Iglesias Navarri
AUSTRIA Allied Control Council of the Republic of AUSTRIA  (Vienna) President Theodor Koerner
FRENCH TOGO United Nations Trusteeship of FRENCH TOGO Associated Territory  (Lome) President Rene Coty
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation under French Suzerainty  (Abalessa) Amenokal Bayy ag Akhamuk
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protectorate]  (Monaco) Prince Rainier III
MOROCCO Protectorates in the Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO  (Rabat) Sultan Muhammad VI bin Arafa
TANGIER TANGIER International Zone  (Tangier) Sultan Muhammad VI bin Arafa
TUNISIA Protectorate of the TUNISIAN Realm  (Tunis) Muhammad VIII Al-Amin Bey
WEST GERMANY Federal Republic of Germany : FRG  (Bonn + Karlsruhe) Bundespresident Theodor Heuss



12 Territories:

COMORO ARCHIPELAGO French Overseas Territory of THE COMORO ARCHIPELAGO  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français de l''ARCHIPEL DES COMORES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d''AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH INDIA French Overseas Territory of the French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer des Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH MADAGASCAR French Overseas Territory of MADAGASCAR  (Tananarive)Local: Territoire français d''outre-mer de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Overseas Territory : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Dakar)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : National Domain of France in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye Saint Mary of the Resurrection of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Tombeau des Rois + Monastère d''Eléona + Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d''Abou Gosh)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Overseas Territory of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

15 Condominiums:

AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE  (Airport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg)Local: Aéroport international de BÂLE-MULHOUSE-FRIBOURG (fr) + Flughafen BASEL-MÜLHAUSEN-FREIBURG (de) + Airport BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG (en)  (Aéroport de Bâle-Mulhouse-Fribourg)
CANFRANC RAILWAY STATION Frenco-Spanish International Convention on Trans-Pyrenean Railways : CANFRANC INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY STATION  (Canfranc International Railway Station)Local: Convención Franco-Española sobre Ferrocarriles Transpirenaicos : ESTACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE CANFRANC (es) + Convention franco-espagnole relative aux Chemins de Fer Transpyrénéens : GARE INTERNATIONALE DE CANFRANC (fr)  (Estación Internacional de Canfranc)
FREE UKRAINE UKRAINIAN Resistance : Ukrainian Insurgency Army  (Ukraine Insurgent Army)Local: Ukrayinsʹka Povstansʹka Armiya : UPA - Українська Повстанська Aрмія: УПА (uk)  (Ukrayinsʹka Povstansʹka Armiya)
FRENCH CAMEROON United Nations Trust Territory of FRENCH CAMEROON  (Yaounde)Local: Territoire du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Yaoundé)
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire : French Protectorate of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l''Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)
FRENCH ZONE IN AUSTRIA French Occupation Zone in AUSTRIA  (Vienna-Funfhaus)Local: Zone d''occupation française en AUTRICHE  (Vienne-Funfhaus)
GHADAMES GHADAMES Territory  (Ghadames)Local: Iqlim GHADAMS : إقليم غدامس (ar) + Territoire de GHADAMÈS (fr)  (Ghdames)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
VIETNAMESE DEMILITARIZED ZONE Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone : SEVENTEENTH PARALLEL  (Bo Ho Su)Local: Khu phi QUÂN Sự VIệT NAM (vi) + Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone : V-DMZ (en)  (Bô-hô-su)
WEST BERLIN Allied Administration of WEST BERLIN : Autonomous Government of Berlin  (Berlin-Schoeneberg)Local: BERLIN Selbstverwaltung (de) + BERLIN Autonomous Government (en) + Gouvernement autonome de BERLIN (fr)  (Berlin-Schöneberg)

Dependent Protectorates:

BAGHIRMI French Protectorate of BAGHIRMI Sultanate  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
DASSA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASSA  (Dassa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba DASSA (ibb)  (Dassa)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahayta))
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Protectorate of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES  (Colomb-Bechar)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Colomb-Béchar)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)



11 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Prince Philippe
AZERBAIJAN IN EXILE Association of AZERBAIJANI Emigrants  (Ankara + Munich) Memmed Emin Rasul-Zadeh
BULGARIA IN EXILE BULGARIAN National Front  (Munich) Ivan Dochev
CATALONIA IN EXILE Catalan Government in Exile : Generality of CATALONIA  (Perpignan) President Josep Tarradellas
COSSACKIA COSSACK National Liberation Movement  (Munich + Paris) Ataman Ignat Arkhipovich Bilyi
EUZKADI BASQUE Government in Exile  (Paris) President Jose Antonio de Aguirre y Lecube
FREE SLOVAKIA SLOVAK Liberation Committee  (Munich + Ottawa) Ferdinand Durcansky
GEORGIA IN EXILE Association for the Georgian Home : GEORGIAN National Organization  (Leuville on Orge) Interregnum
NATIONALIST UKRAINE Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists : OUN  (Munich) Stepan Bandera
SPAIN IN EXILE SPANISH Republican Government in Exile  (Paris) President Diego Martinez Barrio
UKRAINIA Ukrainian People''s Republic in Exile : UKRAINE STATE in Exile  (Munich) President Stepan Vytvytsky



Military entities abroad or locally shared:

AAFCE Allied Air Forces CENTRAL EUROPE  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Forces CENTRAL EUROPE (en) + Forces Aériennes Alliées de l''EUROPE CENTRALE (fr)  (Ramstein)
AFCENT Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT  (Fontainebleau)Local: Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT (en) + Forces Alliées en Europe Centrale : AFCENT (fr)  (Fontainebleau)
BADEN-SOELLINGEN Royal Canadian Air Forces BADEN-SOELLINGEN  (Baden-Soellingen)Local: Royal Canadian Air Forces BADEN-SOELLINGEN (en) + Forces aériennes royales canadiennes de BADEN-SOELLINGEN (fr)  (Baden-Soellingen)
BEN GUERIR BEN GUERIR Air Base  (Ben Guerir)Local: BEN GUERIR Air Base (en)  (Ben Guerir)
CENTAG Nato Central Army Group : CENTAG  (Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg)Local: Nato Central Army Group : CENTAG (en)  (Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg)
FRENCH BASES IN GERMANY French Forces in GERMANY  (Baden-Baden)Local: Forces françaises en ALLEMAGNE (fr) + Französische Streitkräfte in DEUTSCHLAND (de)  (Baden-Baden)
FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)
NOUASSEUR NOUASSEUR Air Base  (Nouasseur)Local: NOUASSEUR Air Base (en) + Base aérienne de NOUASSEUR (fr)  (Nouasseur)
PORT LYAUTEY United States Naval Base of PORT LYAUTEY  (Port Lyautey Base)Local: United States Naval Base of PORT LYAUTEY (en) + Base navale américaine de PORT LYAUTEY (fr)  (Port Lyautey Base)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
SHAPE Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE  (Rocquencourt)Local: Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE (en) + Commandement Allié de l''Europe : Grand Quartier Général des Puissances Alliées en Europe : SHAPE (fr)  (Rocquencourt)
SIDI SLIMANE SIDI SLIMANE Air Base  (Sidi Slimane)Local: SIDI SLIMANE Air Base (en) + Base aérienne de SIDI SLIMANE (fr)  (Sidi Slimane)


57 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CERN European Council for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
CIVIL STATUS International Commission of Civil Status : ICCS  (Strasbourg)
COCOM Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls : COCOM  (Paris)
CUSTOMS Customs Cooperation Council : CCC  (Brussels)
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community : ECSC  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance : TREATY OF DUNKIRK  (Dunkirk)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN DEFENCE European Defence Community : EDC  (Paris)
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY Declaration for the Creation of the European Southern Observatory : ESO  (Groningen)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FRANCO-SOVIET ALLIANCE Treaty of Friendship between France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : FRANCO-SOVIET Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade : GATT  (Villa Bocage)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB  (Monaco)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL PROPERTY International Bureaux for the Protection of International Property : IBPIP  (Berne)
INTERPOL INTERPOL Organization  (Saint Cloud)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IUPN International Union for the Protection of Nature : IUPN  (Brussels)
LATIN UNION Madrid Convention for LATIN UNION  (Madrid)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MOROCCO-AMERICA MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization : NATO Alliance  (Paris)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
OEEC Organization for European Economic Cooperation : OEEC  (Paris)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
PASB Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
SEA Convention on the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization : IMCO  (Geneva)
SOUTH PACIFIC South Pacific Commission : SPC  (Noumea)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TRAVEL International Union of Official Travel Organizations : IUOTO  (Geneva)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)
WESTERN EUROPE Treaty of Brussels : WESTERN EUROPE  (Brussels)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Lausanne)



Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FRANCE French Republic : FR  (Paris)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AFCENT Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT  (Fontainebleau)
AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE  (Airport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg)
ALSACE-MOSELLE Departments of ALSACE-MOSELLE  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)
BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Bayeux)
CHAUSEY ISLANDS Archipelago of CHAUSEY ISLANDS  (Grande Ile)
CORSICA Department of CORSICA  (Ajaccio)
DESIRADE DESIRADE Commune  (Beausejour)
FRENCH BASQUE COUNTRY FRENCH BASQUE COUNTRY Area  (Bayonne)
FRENCH GUIANA French Overseas Department of GUIANA  (Cayenne)
FRENCH SAINT MARTIN Canton of SAINT MARTIN  (Marigot)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast + Andilly)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
GUADELOUPE French Overseas Department of GUADELOUPE  (Basse-Terre)
ISLES OF THE SAINTS Communes of THE ISLES OF THE SAINTS  (Terre de Haut + Terre de Bas)
MARIE-GALANTE Communes of MARIE-GALANTE  (Grand-Bourg)
MARTINIQUE French Overseas Department of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)
OMAHA BEACH American Temporary Cemetery on European Soil : AMERICAN CEMETERY in Omaha Beach  (Vierville)
PETITE TERRE ISLANDS PETITE TERRE ISLANDS Archipelago  (Terre de Bas)
REUNION French Overseas Department of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)
SAINT BARTHELEMY Commune of SAINT BARTHELEMY  (Gustavia)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
SARRAZINE TOWER Luxemburgian Residency of SARRAZINE TOWER  (Sarrazine Tower)
SAUGEAIS Free Republic of SAUGEAIS  (Montbenoit)
SHAPE Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE  (Rocquencourt)
VIMY MEMORIAL Canadian National VIMY MEMORIAL  (Vimy)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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