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1998-JUL-20

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FRENCH Republic
(Paris)

FRENCH Republic UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1944-08-25
République FRANÇAISE (fr)
Emblem or Symbol

President Jacques Chirac
(ruler of FRANCE since 1995-05-17)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Paris(Paris)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)


2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

FRANCE METROPOLITAN FRENCH Republic  (Paris) President Jacques Chirac
NEW CALEDONIA Collectivity of NEW CALEDONIA  (Noumea) Harold Martin


5 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Marti Alanis
CHAD Republic of CHAD  (Ndjamena) President Idriss Deby
GABON GABONESE Republic  (Libreville) President Omar Bongo
JIBUTI Republic of JIBUTI  (Jibuti) President Hassan Gouled Aptidon
MONACO Principality of MONACO  (Monaco) Prince Rainier III



2 Territories in Africa:

MAYOTTE Territorial Collectivity of MAYOTTE  (Mamoutzou)Local: Collectivité territoriale de MAYOTTE (fr)  (Mamoudzou)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND  (Longwood House)Local: Domaines français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

EAST SINAI Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D  (Zone D)Local: Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D (en) + MIZRAHI SINAI : מזרח סיני (he) + SINA'' ASH-SHARQ : شرق سيناء (ar)  (Zone D)
SINAI PENINSULA Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones  (Rome + El Gorah + Sharm El-Sheikh)Local: Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones (en) + SINAI : القوة متعددة الجنسيات والمراقبون (ar)  (Roma + El Gorah + Sharm Ash-Shaykh)

1 Territory in Americas:

SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Territorial Collectivity of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Collectivité territoriale française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Americas:

GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)

1 Territory in Antarctica:

FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS Overseas Territory of FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS  (Port Aux Francais + (Saint Denis of the Reunion))Local: Territoire d''outre-mer des TERRES AUSTRALES ET ANTARCTIQUES FRANÇAISES (fr)  (Port-aux-Français + (Saint-Denis de La Réunion))

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Antactica:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Sector of ADELIE LAND  (Dumont D''Urville Station)Local: Secteur antarctique français de la TERRE ADÉLIE (fr)  (Base Antarctique Dumont d''Urville)

1 Territory in Asia:

HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : National Domain of France in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye Saint Mary of the Resurrection of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Tombeau des Rois + Monastère d''Eléona + Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d''Abu Gosh)

1 Territory in Europe:

VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

6 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

EUROAIRPORT International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : EUROAIRPORT  (Euroairport)Local: Aéroport international de Bâle-Mulhouse-Fribourg : EUROAIRPORT (fr) + Flughafen Basel-Mülhausen-Freiburg : EUROAIRPORT (de) + EUROAIRPORT Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg (en)  (Euroairport)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr) + FAISAIEN Uhartea o Konpantzia (eu)  (Konpantzia)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Settlements in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
UPPER MUNDAT Enclave of UPPER MUNDAT : Obermundat Enclave  (Reisdorf)Local: Enclave de la FORÊT DE L''OBERMUNDAT (fr) + OBERE MUNDATWALD Gebiet (de)  (Reisdorf)

4 Territories in Oceania:

CLIPPERTON ISLAND French Possession of CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Camp Bougainville)Local: Possession française de ÎLE DE CLIPPERTON (fr)  (Camp Bougainville)
FRENCH POLYNESIA Autonomous French Overseas Territory of FRENCH POLYNESIA  (Papeete)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français de la POLYNÉSIE FRANÇAISE (fr) + E Vaataata na te Moana ’o PŌRĪNETIA FARĀNI (ty)  (Pape''ete)
MURUROA AND FANGATAUFA State Domain of MURUROA AND FANGATAUFA  (Mururoa + Fangataufa)Local: Domaine de l''État de MORUROA ET FANGATAUFA (fr)  (Moruroa + Fangataufa)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Overseas Territory of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea + Leava)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français des ÎLES WALLIS ET FUTUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Uvéa + Leava)




8 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Prince Philippe
FREE CUNANI Free State of CUNANI in Exile  (Paris) Interregnum
FREE IRAN National Council of Resistance of Iran : Democratic Republic of IRAN in Exile  (Auvers on Oise + Ashraf City) President Maryam Rajavi
HARATIN African Liberation Forces of Mauritania : ALFM  (Dakar + Paris) President Samba Thiam
KABINDA Cabinda Governments in Exile : Federal Republic of CABINDA  (Pointe Noire + Paris + Cabinda Rebel Zones) Commandant Antonio Luis Lopes
NGUYEN NGUYEN Dynasty in Exile  (Paris) Crown Prince Nguyen Phuc Bao Long
ROYAL-LAOS Royal Lao Government in Exile : Monarchy of LAOS  (Paris) Crown Prince Soulivong Savang
TAMAZGHA World AMAZIGH Congress : World Organization of the Berber People  (Paris) Belkacem Lounes



108 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Abidjan)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ASECNA Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar : ASECNA  (Dakar)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (London + Singapore)
ASIAN BANK Asian Development Bank : ADB  (Mandaluyong City)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
CARIBBEAN BANK Caribbean Development Bank : CDB  (Bridgetown)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
CIVIL STATUS International Commission of Civil Status : ICCS  (Strasbourg)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
EAST-WEST Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe : OSCE  (Vienna)
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community : ECSC  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)
ENERGY Energy Charter Treaty : ECT  (Lisbon)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance : TREATY OF DUNKIRK  (Dunkirk)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites : EUMETSAT  (Darmstadt)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation : EUROCONTROL  (Brussels-Haren)
EUROCORPS European Corps : EUROCORPS  (Strasbourg)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
EUROPEAN PATENT European Patent Organisation : EPORG  (Munich)
EUROPEAN SCIENCE European Science Foundation : ESF  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY European Southern Observatory : ESO  (Garching near Munich)
EUROZONE European Central Bank : ECB  (Frankfort on the Main)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FIEP Association of the European and Mediterranean Police Forces and Gendarmeries with Military Status : FIEP  (Toulon)
FRANCE-AFRICA Conference of Heads of State of Africa and France : FRANCE-AFRICA Summit  (Ouagadougou)
FRANCOPHONIE Intergovernmental Agency of THE FRANCOPHONIE  (Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVEN GROUP OF SEVEN Industrialized Nations  (Birmingham)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICC International Criminal Court : ICC  (Rome)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
INDIAN OCEAN Secretariat of Indian Ocean Commission : IOC  (Quatre Bornes)
INMARSAT International Mobile Satellite Organization : INMARSAT  (London)
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : INTELSAT  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-AMERICAN BANK Inter-American Development Bank : IADB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IUCN World Conservation Union : International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
LATIN UNION Latin Union : LU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MIGRATION International Organization for Migration : IOM  (Geneva)
MISSILES Missile Technology Control Regime : MTCR  (Paris)
MOON Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : MOON TREATY  (New York City)
NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic : OSPAR Convention  (Sintra)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
NUCLEAR TEST BAN Provisional Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization : CTBTO  (Vienna)
OCCAR Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation : OCCAR  (Bonn)
ODCCP Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention : ODCCP Agency  (Vienna)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PACIFIC Secretariat of the Pacific Community : SPC  (Noumea)
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization : PAHO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
PELINDABA TREATY African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ  (Pelindaba)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTH PACIFIC REGION South Pacific Regional Environment Programme : SPREP  (Apia)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TOURISM World Tourism Organization : WTOO  (Madrid)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT The WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies  (Vienna)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION Western European Union Assembly : WEU  (Brussels + Paris)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FRANCE METROPOLITAN FRENCH Republic  (Paris)
NEW CALEDONIA Collectivity of NEW CALEDONIA  (Noumea)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Sector of ADELIE LAND  (Dumont D''Urville Station)
AJIE-ARO AJIE-ARO Traditional Area  (Wailu)
ALSACE Region ALSACE  (Strasbourg)
AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the AMERICAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Colleville + Vierville)
BASSAS DA INDIA French Possession of BASSAS DA INDIA  (Bassas da India)
CHAUSEY ISLANDS Archipelago of CHAUSEY ISLANDS  (Grande Ile)
CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS Dependency of CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS  (Chesterfield)
COMMONWEALTH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the COMMONWEALTH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Bayeux)
CORSICA Territorial Collectivity of CORSICA Region  (Ajaccio)
DESIRADE DESIRADE Commune  (Beausejour)
DREHU DREHU Traditional Area  (We on Lifu)
EUROAIRPORT International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : EUROAIRPORT  (Euroairport)
EUROPA ISLAND French Possession of EUROPA ISLAND  (Rosier Station)
FREE BRITTANY BRETON Liberation Front  (Saint Brieuc)
FRENCH BASQUE COUNTRY FRENCH BASQUE COUNTRY Area  (Bayonne)
FRENCH GUIANA Region of GUIANA  (Cayenne)
FRENCH SAINT MARTIN Cantons of SAINT MARTIN  (Marigot)
FRIOUL Free Republic of FRIOUL  (Fort Bregantin on Ratonneau Island)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast + Andilly)
GEYSIR BANK Madagascar annexed GEYSIR BANK Zone  ((Tamatave))
GLORIOSO ISLANDS French Possession of GLORIOSO ISLANDS  (Glorioso)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
GUADELOUPE Region of GUADELOUPE  (Basse-Terre)
HUNTER ISLAND Dependency of HUNTER ISLAND  (Hunter Island)
HUON ISLANDS Dependency of HUON ISLANDS : Atolls of D''Entrecasteaux Reefs  (Huon)
ISLE OF PINES Commune of ISLE OF PINES : High Chiefdom of Kunie  (Vao)
ISLES OF THE SAINTS Communes of THE ISLES OF THE SAINTS  (Terre de Haut + Terre de Bas)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Possession of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Juan de Nova Station)
LOYALTY ISLANDS Province of LOYALTY ISLANDS  (We on Lifu)
MARIE-GALANTE Communes of MARIE-GALANTE  (Grand-Bourg)
MARTINIQUE Region of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Dependencies of MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS  (Matthew Island)
MATTHEW ISLAND Dependency of MATTHEW ISLAND  (Matthew Island)
MOSELLE Department of MOSELLE  (Metz)
NATIONALIST CORSICA National Liberation Fronts in CORSICA  (Corsican Maquis)
NENGONE NENGONE Traditional Area  (Tadin)
NEW CALEDONIA-KANAKY Socialist and Kanak National Liberation Front : FLNKS  (Noumea)
OUEN ISLAND OUEN ISLAND Chiefdom  (Ouara)
PAICI-CAMUKI PAICI-CAMUKI Traditional Area  (Touho)
PETITE TERRE ISLANDS PETITE TERRE ISLANDS Archipelago  (Terre de Bas)
REUNION French Overseas Region of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)
SAINT BARTHELEMY Canton of SAINT BARTHELEMY  (Gustavia)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
SAINT MARTIN AND SAINT BARTHELEMY Arrondissement of SAINT MARTIN AND SAINT BARTHELEMY  (Marigot)
SARRAZINE TOWER Luxemburgian Residency of SARRAZINE TOWER  (Sarrazine Tower)
SAUGEAIS Free Republic of SAUGEAIS  (Montbenoit)
SAVOYAN LEAGUE SAVOYAN League  (Ugine)
SCATTERED ISLANDS French Possessions of SCATTERED ISLANDS  ((Saint Pierre of the Reunion))
TROMELIN ISLAND French Possession of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Station Serge Frolow)
VIMY MEMORIAL Canadian National VIMY MEMORIAL  (Vimy)
WALPOLE Dependency of WALPOLE  (Walpole)

Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.