NORTH CAUCASUS (Temir-Khan-Shura) SDN Observer Union of United Highlanders of NORTHERN CAUCASUS : PM Pshemakho Kotsev
KARS (Kars) De facto Semi-Independent KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus : Cihangirzade Ibrahim Bey
NORTH CAUCASIA (Pyatigorsk) De facto Semi-Independent NORTH CAUCASIAN Soviet Republic : M Akulov

Other Entities with similar names

(Kars) - ((Constantinople)) -

KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus

Flag or logo since 1918-12-01*
KARS Milli Şura (ota) De facto Semi-Independent
Emblem or Symbol*

Cihangirzade Ibrahim Bey
(ruler of KARS since 1918-12-01)

Sultan Mehmet VI Vahidettin
(ruler of OTTOMAN TURKEY since 1918-07-03)
Capitals & administrative places*: Kars
Official & national languages: Ottoman Turkish (ota) .


KARS KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus  (Kars)

3 Divisions:

ADJARA Territory of AJARA  (Kobuleti)Local: ACARA Toprakları (ota)  (Kobuleti)
BATUM BATUM Vilayet  (Batumi)Local: Vilâyet-i BATUMI (ota)  (Batumi)
KARS KARS Vilayet  (Kars)Local: Vilâyet-i KARS (ota)  (Kars)

* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

OTTOMAN TURKEY Turkish Empire : OTTOMAN STATE [Allied Occupation]  ((Constantinople))
PONTUS Hellenic Autonomous State of PONTUS  ((Trebizond))

Other Territories or Entities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADRIANOPLE Vilayet of ADRIANOPLE [Allied Occupation]  (Adrianople)
ASIA MINOR Region of ASIA MINOR  (Cotyaeum)
CHATALJA Autonomous Sanjak of CHATALJA  (Chatalja)
CILICIAN ARMENIA CILICIA AND UPPER MESOPOTOMIA Region [British and French Occupation of Cilician Armenia]  (Adana)
CONSTANTINOPLE Vilayet of CONSTANTINOPLE [Allied Occupation]  (Constantinople)
DARDANELLES Autonomous Sanjak of DARDANELLES  (Hellespont)
DIARBEKIR Vilayet of DIARBEKIR  (Diarbekir)
HAKKIARI Sanjak of HAKKIARI  (Qodchanis)
IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS Greek Administration of IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS  (Panagia Palomeni + Tenedos)
IZMIDT Autonomous Sanjak of IZMIDT  (Izmidt)
MARASH Autonomous Sanjak of MARASH  (Marash)
RUMELIA Region of RUMELIA [European Turkey]  (Kirk Kilise)
SAMSUN British Occupied Zone of SAMSUN  (Amisos)
SKUTARI SKUTARI District  (Skutari)
SMYRNA British Occupied Sanjak of SMYRNA  (Smyrna)
STRAITS ZONE ZONE OF THE STRAITS Allied Occupied Demilitarized Area  (Thessalonica + Constantinople)
ZAZAKISTAN Kizilbach Area of ZAZAKISTAN [rebellion]  (Kodjgiri)
Notes: aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   *, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.


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UPDATED ON: ~ 2023-APR-27 ~ .