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1918-DEC-01

Zones: Timeline


NORTH CAUCASUS (Temir-Khan-Shura) SDN Observer Union of United Highlanders of NORTHERN CAUCASUS : PM Pshemakho Kotsev
KARS (Kars) De facto Semi-Independent KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus : Cihangirzade Ibrahim Bey
NORTH CAUCASIA (Pyatigorsk) De facto Semi-Independent NORTH CAUCASIAN Soviet Republic : M Akulov

Other Entities with similar names

KARS  OTTOMAN TURKEY 
  
(Kars) - ((Constantinople)) -

KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus

Flag or logo since 1918-12-01*
KARS Milli Şura (ota) De facto Semi-Independent
Emblem or Symbol*

Cihangirzade Ibrahim Bey
(ruler of KARS since 1918-12-01)

Sultan Mehmet VI Vahidettin
(ruler of OTTOMAN TURKEY since 1918-07-03)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Kars
(Kars)
Official & national languages: Ottoman Turkish (ota) .

Mainland:


KARS KARS National Council : South-Western Caucasus  (Kars)

3 Divisions:

ADJARA Territory of AJARA  (Kobuleti)Local: ACARA Toprakları (ota)  (Kobuleti)
BATUM BATUM Vilayet  (Batumi)Local: Vilâyet-i BATUMI (ota)  (Batumi)
KARS KARS Vilayet  (Kars)Local: Vilâyet-i KARS (ota)  (Kars)







* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

OTTOMAN TURKEY Turkish Empire : OTTOMAN STATE [Allied Occupation]  ((Constantinople))
PONTUS Hellenic Autonomous State of PONTUS  (Amisos + (Trebizond))


Other Territories or Entities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADRIANOPLE Vilayet of ADRIANOPLE [Allied Occupation]  (Adrianople)
ASIA MINOR Region of ASIA MINOR  (Cotyaeum)
CHATALJA Autonomous Sanjak of CHATALJA  (Chatalja)
CILICIAN ARMENIA British-French Occupied CILICIA AND UPPER MESOPOTOMIA Region : Cilician Armenia  (Adana)
CONSTANTINOPLE Vilayet of CONSTANTINOPLE [Allied Occupation]  (Constantinople)
DARDANELLES Autonomous Sanjak of DARDANELLES  (Hellespont)
DIARBEKIR Vilayet of DIARBEKIR  (Diarbekir)
HAKKIARI Sanjak of HAKKIARI  (Qodchanis)
IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS Greek Administration of IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS  (Panagia Palomeni + Tenedos)
IZMIDT Autonomous Sanjak of IZMIDT  (Izmidt)
MARASH Autonomous Sanjak of MARASH  (Marash)
RUMELIA Region of RUMELIA : European Turkey  (Kirk Kilise)
SKUTARI SKUTARI District  (Skutari)
SMYRNA British Occupied Sanjak of SMYRNA  (Smyrna)
STRAITS ZONE ZONE OF THE STRAITS Allied Occupied Demilitarized Area  (Thessalonica + Constantinople)
TURKISH ARMENIA Region of TURKISH ARMENIA  (Erzerum)
ZAZAKISTAN Kizilbach Area of ZAZAKISTAN [rebellion]  (Kodjgiri)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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