.. or a geo zone >>

Communist Party of CHINA in Second United Front Alliance with Kuomintang : Chinese Red Army : COMMUNIST CHINA (Yenan)  Mao Tse-Tung the Great Helmsman
Reorganized National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Nanking Nationalist Government : CHINA-NANKING (Nanking)  Wang Ching-Wei
National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Kuomintang Government : CHINA (Chungking)  Lin Sen

Alternate Entities with similar names

(Tokyo) - (Nanking) -

Reorganized National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Nanking Nationalist Government De facto Semi-Independent

Flag or logo since 1943-02-03
CHUNG-HUA Min-Kuo - Nan-Ching Kuo Min Cheng-Fu : 中華民國 南京國民政府 (zh) + CHIYUU Kaminkoku Nankin Kokumin Seifu : 中華民国南京国民政府 (ja)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Hirohito
(ruler of JAPAN since 1926-12-25)

Wang Ching-Wei
(ruler of CHINA-NANKING since 1940-03-30)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


CHINA-NANKING Reorganized National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Nanking Nationalist Government  (Nanking)

11 Mainland Divisions:

AMOY Enclave of AMOY Special Municipality  (Siming)Local: HSIA-MEN Shih  (Hsi-Ming)
ANHWEI Japanese Occupied Province of ANHWEI  (Hwaining)Local: ANKI-Shō : 安徽省 (ja) + AN-HUEI Sheng : 安徽省 (zh)  (Huai-Ning)
CHEKIANG Japanese Occupied Province of CHEKIANG  (Hangchow)Local: CHE-CHIANG Sheng : 浙江省 (zh) + SETSUKŌ-Shō : 浙江省 (ja)  (Hang-Chou)
HUAIHAI HUAI-HAI Province  (Hsuchow)Local: HUAI-HAI Sheng : 淮海省 (zh)  (Hsü-Chou)
HUPEH Japanese Occupied Nationalist Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)Local: HU-PEI Sheng : 湖北省 (zh) + KOHOKU-Shō : 湖北省 (ja)  (Wu-Ch''ang)
KIANGSI Japanese Occupied Nationalist Province of KIANGSI  (Nanchang)Local: CHIANG-HSI Sheng : 江西省 (zh) + ENISHI-Shō : 江西省 (ja)  (Nan-Ch''ang)
KIANGSU KIANGSU Province  (Chinkiang)Local: CHIANG-SU Sheng  (Ching-K''ou)
NANKING NANKING Special Municipality  (Nanking)Local: NAN-CHING Shih  (Nan-Ching)
SHANGHAI Japanese Occupied SHANGHAI City  (Shanghai)Local: SHANG-HAI Ch''eng-Shih : 上海 城市 (zh) + SHIYANHAI Chi : 上海市 (ja)  (Shang-Hai)
SHANTUNG Japanese Occupied Province of SHANTUNG  (Tsinan)Local: SHAN-TUNG Sheng : 山東省 (zh) + SANTŌ-Shō : 山東省 (ja)  (Chi-Nan)
TSINGTAO Japanese Occupied TSINGTAO Special Municipality  (Tsingtao)Local: CH''ING-TAO Shih : 青岛市 (zh)  (Ch''ing-Tao)

1 Assisted Entity

INNER MONGOLIA MONGOLIAN Autonomous Federation : Inner Mongolia Federation  (Kalgan) Prince Teh Demchuk-Dongrup

13 Territories in Asia:

BRITISH SHAMEEN Japanese Occupied British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)Local: SAMIN  (Samin)
CHINCHEW CHINCHEW County  (Chinchew)Local: CH''ÜAN-CHOU Hsien  (Ch''ûan-Chou)
FOOCHOW Japanese Occupied Province of Fukien : Enclave of the Region of FOOCHOW  (Foochow)Local: FU-CHOU  (Fu-Chou)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
HAINAN Japanese Military Governorate of the Provisional Government of HAINAN Administrative Committee  (Sanya)Local: KAINAN-Tō : 海南島 (ja) + HAI-NAN Tao : 海南島 (zh)  (Samah)
HSIAPU Japanese Occupied Enclave of HSIAPU County  (Hsiapu)Local: HSIA-P''U Hsien  (Hsia-P''u)
KULANGYU ISLAND Japanese Occupied International Settlement of KULANGYU ISLAND  (Kulangyu)Local: Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Ku-Lang-Yü)
KWANGCHOW Japanese Occupied Province of Kwangtung : KWANGCHOW Special Municipality  (Canton)Local: KUANG-CHOU Shih  (Kuang-Chou)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Chankiang)Local: Tsu-Chieh KUANG-CHOU-WAN : 租界廣州灣 (zh) + KŌSHŪWAN Sokai : 広州湾租界 (ja)  (Chan-Kiang)
NORTH CHINA NORTH CHINA Political Affairs Commission  (Peking)Local: PEI CHUNG-KUO Cheng-Chih Shih-Wu Wei-Yuan-Huei : 北中國政治事務委員會 (zh) + KAHOKU Seimu Iinkai : 華北政務委員会 (ja)  (Pei-Ching)
PRATAS ISLANDS Japanese Naval Station of PRATAS ISLANDS  (Tungsha)Local: TUNG-SHA Ch''iun-Tao : 東沙群島 (zh)  (Tung-Sha)
SWATOW Japanese Occupied SWATOW Region  (Swatow)Local: SHAN-T''OU  (Shan-T''ou)
WEIHAIWEI Japanese Occupied WEIHAIWEI Special Administrative Region  (Weihaiwei)Local: WEI-HAI-WEI T''e Pieh Hsing Cheng Ch''ü : 威海衛特別行政區 (zh) + IKAIEI Tokubetsu Gyōsei-ku : 威海衛特別行政区 (ja)  (Wei-Hai-Wei)

4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

FRENCH HANKOW Chinese administered French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: HAN-K''OU FA-KUO  (Han-K''ou Fa-Kuo)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)Local: NIHON HANKOU  (Nihon Hankou)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Chinese Controlled PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANSI Japan Occupied Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI Province : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu)Local: SHAN-SI Sheng : 陝西省 (zh) + SENSEI-Shō : 山西省 (ja)  (Yang-Ch''ü)

3 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

AXIS POWERS Tripartite Pact : AXIS PACT  (Berlin + Rome + Tokyo)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

CHINA National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Kuomintang Government  (Chungking)
COMMUNIST CHINA Communist Party of CHINA in Second United Front Alliance with Kuomintang : Chinese Red Army  (Yenan)
INNER MONGOLIA MONGOLIAN Autonomous Federation : Inner Mongolia Federation  (Kalgan)
MA Three Mas of the Northwest Sultanates : MA Clique  (Sining)
MANCHURIA Great Manchu Empire : MANCHUKUO  (Hsinking)
SINKIANG Pro-Soviet Warlordship of the Nationalist Chinese Autonomous Province of SINKIANG  (Tihwa)
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET  (Lhasa)
YUNNAN Autonomous Warlordship of YUNNAN Province : Yunnan Clique  (Kunming)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AIGUN Soviet Union Concession of AIGUN  (Aigun)
BRITISH FOOCHOW Japanese Occupied British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
CHANAN Autonomous SOUTH CHAHAR Province : Chanan Province  (Kalgan)
CHANGSHA Japanese Concession at CHANGSHA  (Changsha Concession)
CHEKIANG Province of CHEKIANG  (Wenchow)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Manchu Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHUNGKING CHUNGKING Special Municipality  (Chungking)
DAIREN DAIREN Special Municipality  (Port Arthur)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment of Odent in CHUNGKING  (Odent)
FRENCH HANKOW Chinese administered French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Nationalist Province of FUKIEN  (Kienow)
GOLOK GOLOK Prefecture : Ngolok Tribal Region in Rebellion  (Machin)
HONG KONG HONG KONG Occupied Territory  (Victoria City)
HONGKEW Japanese District of HONGKEW  (Hongkew)
HSINKING HSINKING Special Municipality : New Capital  (Hsinking)
HUHEHOT Special Municipality of HUHEHOT  (Huhehot)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE KHARBIN Japanese Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Japanese Concession)
JIRIM JIRIM League  (Tungliao)
JOSUTU Tumed JOSUTU League  (Chaoyang)
JUU UDA JUU UDA League  (Chihfeng)
KANSU KANSU Province  (Lanchow)
KHARBIN KHARBIN Special Municipality  (Kharbin)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KWANGTUNG Nationalist KWANGTUNG Province  (Kukong + Meikiang)
KWANTUNG KWANTUNG Leased Territory  (Port Arthur)
MACAO Protectorate of MACAO  (Macao)
MUKDEN MUKDEN Special Municipality : Shenyang  (Mukden)
NATIONALIST HUPEH Nationalist Province of HUPEH  (Enshi)
NINGSIA NINGSIA Province  (Yinchuan)
ORDOS ORDOS League  (Ordos)
PAOTOW PAOTOW Special Municipality  (Paotow)
SHANSI Japan Occupied Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI Province : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu)
SHENSI Nationalist SHENSI Province  (Paoki)
SIAN SIAN Special Municipality  (Sian)
SIKANG SIKANG Province  (Kangting)
SILINGOL SILINGOL League  (Silinhot)
SUIYUAN SUIYUAN Province  (Linho)
SZECHWAN Nationalist Province of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu)
TAIWAN Government-General of TAIWAN : Colonial Government of Formosa part of Japan Empire  (Taihoku)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)
TSINGHAI Sultanate of TSINGHAI Province  (Sining)
TSINPEI Northern Shansi Region : TSINPEI Government  (Ta-T''ung)
ULANCHAB ULANCHAB League  (Wulanhua)
YUYANG YUYANG Special District : Eighth Administrative Region of Szechwan  (Yuyang)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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