.. or a geo zone >>

RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR
(Moscow) (Moscow) (Moscow)

MARI Autonomous Oblast

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
MARIYSKAYA Avtonomnaya Oblast'' : МАРИЙСКАЯ Aвтономная Oбласть (ru) + MARIY Avtonomnyy Oblast'' : МАРИЙ Aвтономный Oбласть (chm)
Emblem or Symbol

Vladimir Ilich Lenin
(ruler of SOVIET RUSSIA since 1917-11-08)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


MARI MARI Autonomous Oblast  (Krasnokokshaisk)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ANTONOVSHCHINA Independent Republic of Tambov : Blue Army of ANTONOVSHCHINA in rebellion  (Tambov)
EAST KARELIA Karelian United Government in Exile : Temporary Government of EAST KARELIA  (Helsinki)
EAST RUSSIA All Armed Forces of the East Part of RUSSIA  (Primorye Area)
FAR EAST FAR EASTERN Republic : Chita Republic  (Chita)
GREEN UKRAINE United Far Eastern State of Cossacks Buryats and Ukrainians : Autonomous Ukrainian Republic of THE FAR EAST  (Nikolsk-Ussuriysky)
OIRAT OIRAT Republic : Altai Confederated Republic  (Biysk)
SOVIET RUSSIA RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic  (Moscow)
TUVA Chinese Occupied Territory of TUVA Chieftaincy  (Khem-Beldyr)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALTAY ALTAY Oblast  (Barnaul)
AMUR AMUR Oblast : Trans-Amur Republic  (Blagoveshchensk)
BASHKIRIA BASHKIR Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic  (Ufa)
BURYAT-MONGOLIA BURYAT-MONGOLIA Region : Dauria Region  (Verkhneudinsk)
CHECHENIA Emirate of CHECHENIA District  (Grozny)
CHELYABINSK CHELYABINSK Governorate  (Chelyabinsk)
CHUKOTKA Soviet Territory of CHUKOTKA  (New Mariinsk)
CHUVASHIA Chuvash Worker''s Commune Autonomous Oblast  (Cheboksary)
DAGHESTAN DAGHESTAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Port Petrovsk)
EAST PRUSSIA Enclave of the Province of EAST PRUSSIA  (Koenigsberg in Prussia)
EASTERN DONBASS White Don Army in EASTERN DONBASS Region  (Alexandrovsk-Grushevsky)
FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND Disputed Territory of FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND : Fridjof Nansen Land  (Northbrook Island)
INGRIA National Autonomous Region of INGRIA  (Kirjasalo)
IRKUTSK IRKUTSK Oblast  (Irkutsk)
KALMYKIA KALMYK Autonomous Oblast  (Astrakhan)
KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA Oblast  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky)
KARACHAY KARACHAY National District  (Georgiyevskoye)
KARAFUTO KARAFUTO Prefecture : South Sakhalin  (Toyohara)
KARELIA KARELIAN Worker''s Commune Autonomous Oblast  (Petrozadovsk)
KOLYMA KOLYMA Region  (Nagayevo)
KURIL ISLANDS Archipelago of KURIL ISLANDS  (Kunashir)
LOWER KOLYMA LOWER KOLYMA Region  (Srednekolymsk)
MARITIME Japanese Occupied MARITIME Province  (Primorye)
MORDOVIA Nation of MORDOVIA : Moksho-Erzia  (Saransk)
MOUNTAIN MOUNTAIN People''s Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic  (Vladikavkaz)
NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS Archipelago  (Great Lyakhovsky Island)
NEW ZEMBLA NEW ZEMBLA District  (Malye Karmakuly)
NORTHERN SAKHALIN Japan Occupied Far-Eastern Province of NORTHERN SAKHALIN  (Nogliki)
OMSK OMSK Governorate  (Omsk)
PETSAMO PETSAMO Territory  (Nickel)
PETSERI PETSERI County  (Petseri)
RUSSIA Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR  (Moscow)
SOCHI SOCHI District  (Sochi)
TAGANROG TAGANROG Province  (Taganrog)
TATARIA TATAR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kazan)
TIUMEN TIUMEN Governorate  (Tiumen)
TOMSK TOMSK Governorate  (Tomsk)
VICTORIA ISLAND Neutral Territory of VICTORIA ISLAND  (Victoria Island)
VOLGA GERMANS VOLGA GERMAN Autonomous Oblast  (Marx City)
VOTYAKIA VOTYAK Autonomous Oblast  (Izhevsk)
VYBORG VYBORG Province  (Vyborg)
WESTERN INGRIA WESTERN INGRIA Governing Council  (Kosemkina)
WHITE RUSSIAN SIBERIA WHITE RUSSIAN Forces of Siberia  (Vladivostok)
YAKUTSK Soviet Governorate of YAKUTSK  (Yakutsk)
YANA YANA Region  (Batagay)
YENISEI YENISEI Governorate  (Krasnonyarsk)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

  Creative Commons License Licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License