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1912-JAN-01

Zones:

Republic of CHINA : Peiyang Government
(Nanking)

Republic of CHINA : Peiyang Government

Flag or logo since 1911-12-11*
CHUNG-HUA Min-Kuo : 中華民國 (zh) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Sun Yat-Sen
(ruler of CHINA since 1912-01-01)
Capital:Nanking - (Nan-Ching)
Official languages: Chinese (zh) .

Mainland:


CHINA Republic of CHINA  (Nanking)

18 Federated Mainland Divisions:

ANHWEI AN-HWEI Province  (Hwaining)Local: AN-HUEI Sheng : 安徽省 (zh)  (Huai-Ning)
CHEKIANG Military Province of CHEKIANG  (Hangchow)Local: CHE-CHIANG Sheng : 浙江省 (zh)  (Hang-Chou)
CHUNGKING SZECHWAN Military Government at Chungking  (Chungking)Local: SZU-CH''UAN Chün Cheng-Fu : 四川軍政府 (zh)  (Ch''ung-Ch''ing)
FENGTIEN Military Province of FENGTIEN : Manchuria Province  (Mukden)Local: FENG-T''IEN Sheng : 奉天省 (zh)  (Feng-T''ien-Fu)
FUKIEN Military Province of FUKIEN  (Foochow)Local: FU-CHIEN Sheng : 福建省 (zh)  (Fu-Chou)
HEILUNGKIANG Province of HEILUNGKIANG  (Kharbin)Local: HEI-LUNG-CHIANG Sheng : 黑龍江省 (zh)  (Ha''erh-Pin)
HUNAN Military Province of HUNAN  (Changsha)Local: HU-NAN Sheng : 湖南省 (zh)  (Ch''ang-Sha)
HUPEH Military Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)Local: HU-PEI Sheng : 湖北省 (zh)  (Wu-Ch''ang)
KIANGSI Military Province of KIANGSI  (Nanchang)Local: CHIANG-HSI Sheng : 江西省 (zh)  (Nan-Ch''ang)
KIANGSU Military Province of KIANGSU  (Nanking)Local: CHIANG-SU Sheng : 江蘇 省 (zh)  (Nan-Ching)
KIRIN Military Province of KIRIN  (Kirin)Local: CHI-LIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh)  (Chi-Lin)
KWANGSI Military Province of KWANGSI  (Kweichow)Local: KUANG-HSI Sheng : 廣西省 (zh)  (Kuei-Chou)
KWEICHOW Military Province of KWEICHOW  (Kweiyang)Local: KUEI-CHOU Sheng : 貴州省 (zh)  (Kuei-Yang)
PEICHIHLI PEICHIHLI Province  (Tientsin)Local: PEI-CHIH-LI Sheng : 北直隶省 (zh)  (Tien-Chin)
SHANTUNG Military Province of SHANTUNG  (Tsinan-Fu)Local: SHAN-TUNG Sheng : 山東省 (zh)  (Chi-Nan-Fu)
SHENKAN SHENKAN Province  (Sian)Local: SHAN-KAN Sheng : 陝甘省 (zh)  (Hsi''an)
SINKIANG SINKIANG Province  (Tihwa)Local: HSIN-CHIANG Sheng : 新疆省 (zh)  (Ti-Hua)
TUNGCHWAN TUNGCHWAN Circuit  (Tzuyang)Local: TUNG-CH''UAN  (Tzu-Yang)


3 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

KWANGTUNG Military Province of KWANGTUNG  (Canton) Chen Chiung-Ming
SZECHWAN Great Han Military Government of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu) Yin Chang-Heng
YUNNAN Military Province of YUNNAN : Yunnan Clique  (Yunnan-Fu) Tsai Eh


2 Assisted Entities

BARGUT MONGOLIA Pro-Mongolian BARGUT MONGOLIAN Independent Province  (Khailar) Jasrangiyn Chun Van Damdinsuren
THIBET Kingdom of THIBET [Chinese Occupation]  (Lhasa) Gaden Tripa Ngawang Lobsang Gyaltsen Tenpey



9 Territories:

AMDO AMDO Administrative Region  (Zining)Local: AMDO : ཨ༌མདོ (bo) + AN-TUO Hsien Hsin-Cheng : 安多縣的行政區 (zh)  (Zining)
CHAKHAR CHANGYUAN Special Region : Chakhar Eight Banners Territory  (Changyuan)Local: CHANG-YUAN T''e-Ch''ü : 張垣特區 (zh)  (Chang-Yuan)
CHWANPIEN CHWANPIEN Special Administrative District  (Tachienlu)Local: CH''UAN-PIEN  (Ta-Chien-Lu)
FORBIDDEN CITY Manchu Empire in THE FORBIDDEN CITY  (The Purple Forbidden City)Local: TZU-CHIN CH''ENG Ling-Ti : 紫禁城領地 (zh) + DAICING Gurun : ᡩᠠᡳ᠌ᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ (mnc)  (Tzu-Chin Ch''eng)
ILI Manchu Governorate-General of ILI  (Suidun)Local: YI-LI  (Sui-Ting)
INNER MONGOLIA Leagues of INNER MONGOLIA  (Chihfeng)Local: NEI-MENG-KU Lien-Meng : 內蒙古聯盟 (zh) + ÖVÖR MONGOL Chuulghan : ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ (mn)  (Ch''ih-Feng)
PEIKING Directly administered Territory of PEKING  (Peking)Local: PEI-CHING  (Pei-Ching)
SUIYUAN Military Territory of SUIYUAN  (Kweihua)Local: SUI-YUAN Chün Ch''ü : 綏遠準出 (zh)  (Kuei-Hua)
WESTERN MONGOLIA Chinese Territory of WESTERN MONGOLIA  (Kobdo)Local: HSI MENG-KU Ling-Ti : 西蒙古領地 (zh)  (Chovd)

8 Condominiums:

CHANGSHA CHANGSHA General Foreign Settlement  (Changsha Settlement)Local: CHANGSHA General Foreign Settlement (en) + Établissement étranger général de TCHANG-CHA (fr) + CH''ANG-SHA Yi-Pan Wai-kuo-Jen Ting-Chü : 長沙一般外國人定居 (zh)  (Changsha Settlement)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZURIYA Poseleniye : МАНЬЧЖУРИЯ Поселение (ru) + MAN-CHOU-LI Ts''un : 滿洲里村 (zh)  (Manchzhuriya)
NORTHERN MANCHURIA AMUR RIVER Province [Russian Sphere of Influence in the Protectorate of Northern Manchuria]  (Aigun)Local: PRIAMURYE Territoriya : ПРИАМУРЬЕ Территория (ru) + HEI-LUNG-CHIANG Sheng : 黑龍江省 (zh)  (Aihun)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)

Dependent Protectorate:

KUMUL KUMUL Khanate : Vassal Principality of Kumul  (Khamil)Local: QUMUL Xanliqi (ug) + HA-MI Kuo : 郭哈密 (zh)  (Ha-Mi)



5 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Saint Petersburg)
OPIUM International Opium Commission : IOC  (Shanghai International Settlement)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
SINO-GERMAN ALLIANCE SINO-GERMAN Cooperation  (Nanking)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

BARGUT MONGOLIA Pro-Mongolian BARGUT MONGOLIAN Independent Province  (Khailar)
KWANGTUNG Military Province of KWANGTUNG  (Canton)
SZECHWAN Great Han Military Government of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu)
THIBET Kingdom of THIBET [Chinese Occupation]  (Lhasa)
UIGHURISTAN Republic of UIGHURISTAN  (Kashgar)
YUNNAN Military Province of YUNNAN : Yunnan Clique  (Yunnan-Fu)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)
AMOY ISLAND British Concession of AMOY ISLAND  (Siming)
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Austro-Hungarian Concession  (Tientsin Austro-Hungarian Concession)
BELGIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Belgian Concession  (Tientsin Belgian Concession)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH HANKOW British Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CHANGSHA CHANGSHA General Foreign Settlement  (Changsha Settlement)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Russian Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHINKIANG British Concession at CHINKIANG  (Chinkiang)
CHOUTSUN CHOUTSUN Foreign Settlement  (Choutsun)
FORMOSA ISLAND Dependency of FORMOSA  (Taihoku)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
GERMAN HANKOW German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)
GERMAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)
HAINAN HAINAN Circuit  (Hai Hao)
HONGKONG British Crown Colony of HONGKONG  (City of Victoria)
HUEICHOW HUEICHOW Revolutionary Army  (Canton)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE CHUNGKING Japanese Concession at CHUNGKING  (Chungking Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KIAOCHAU German Leased Territory of KIAO-CHAU  (Tsingtao)
KIUKIANG British Concession at KIUKIANG  (Kiukiang)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Fort Bayard)
KWANTUNG Japanese Military Administration of KWANTUNG Leased Territory  (Port Arthur)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)
NANKING INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT NANKING General Foreign Settlement  (Nanking International Settlement)
NORTHERN MANCHURIA AMUR RIVER Province [Russian Sphere of Influence in the Protectorate of Northern Manchuria]  (Aigun)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)
PARACEL ISLANDS PARACEL ISLANDS Group  (Woody Island)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)
PRATAS ISLANDS Atoll of PRATAS ISLANDS  (Tungsha)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN KHARBIN Russian Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Russian Concession  (Tientsin Russian Concesion)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE South Manchuria Railway Company : SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE  (Dairen)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)
TSINANFU TSINANFU Foreign Settlement  (Tsinan-Fu)
WEIHAIWEI British Leased Territory of WEIHAIWEI  (Port Edward)
WEIHSIEN WEIHSIEN Foreign Settlement  (Wei)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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