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1917-JUL-12

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Republic of CHINA : Peiyang Government : CHINA (Peking)  President Li Yuan-Hung
Great Manchu CHINESE Empire : MANCHURIA (Peking)  Emperor Pu-Yi

Alternate Entities with similar names

Republic of CHINA : Peiyang Government
(Peking)

Republic of CHINA : Peiyang Government PCA Member

Flag or logo since 1917-07-12
CHUNG-HUA Min-Kuo : 中華民國 (zh)
Emblem or Symbol

President Li Yuan-Hung
(ruler of CHINA since 1917-07-12)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Peking(Pei-Ching)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


CHINA Republic of CHINA  (Peking)

9 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

CHIHLI CHIHLI Province  (Tientsin)Local: CHIH-LI Sheng : 直隶省 (zh)  (Tien-Chin)
HONAN Military Province of HONAN  (Kaifeng)Local: HO-NAN Sheng : 河南省 (zh)  (K''ai-Feng)
HUPEH Military Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)Local: HU-PEI Sheng : 湖北省 (zh)  (Wu-Ch''ang)
KIANGSI Military Province of KIANGSI  (Nanchang)Local: CHIANG-HSI Sheng : 江西省 (zh)  (Nan-Ch''ang)
KIANGSU Military Province of KIANGSU  (Nanking)Local: CHIANG-SU Sheng : 江蘇 省 (zh)  (Nan-Ching)
KINGCHAO KINGCHAO Region  (Peking)Local: CHING-CHAO  (Pei-Ching)
KIRIN KIRIN Province  (Kirin)Local: CHI-LIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh)  (Chi-Lin)
SHANTUNG Military Province of SHANTUNG  (Tsinan)Local: SHAN-TUNG Sheng : 山東省 (zh)  (Chi-Nan)
TUNGCHWAN TUNGCHWAN Circuit  (Tzuyang)Local: TUNG-CH''UAN  (Tzu-Yang)


8 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

ANHWEI ANHWEI Clique  (Hwaining) Ni Hsi-Chung
CHAHAR CHAHAR Special Administrative Region  (Changkiapao) Ni Hsi-Chung
KWEICHOW Military Province of KWEICHOW  (Kweiyang) Liu Hsien-Shih
SHENSI Military Province of SHENSI  ((Sian)) General Chen Shu-Fan
SINKIANG SINKIANG Province : Sinkiang Clique  (Tihwa) Yang Tseng-Hsin
SUIYUAN SUIYUAN Special Administrative Region  (Kweisui) Ni Hsi-Chung
SZECHWAN Military Province of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu) Tai Kan
YUNNAN Military Province of YUNNAN : Yunnan Clique  (Yunnan-Fu) Tang Chi-Yao


5 Assisted Entities

MA Sultanates of MA Clique  (Lanchow) Ma Chi
MANCHURIA Great Manchu CHINESE Empire  (Peking) Emperor Pu-Yi
OUTER MONGOLIA Russian Protectorate of the Autonomous State of Bogd Khanate of MONGOLIA  (Urga) Bogd Khan Jebtsundamba Khutugtu
SHANSI Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu) Yen Hsi-Shan
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET under Chinese Suzerainty  (Lhasa) Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso



3 Territories in Asia:

CHINESE ALTAY ALTAY Special Region  (Altay City)Local: A-LE-T''AI T''e Ch''ü : 阿勒泰地區 (zh)  (A-Le-T''ai)
CHWANPIEN CHWANPIEN Special Administrative District  (Tachienlu)Local: CH''UAN-PEI  (Ta-Chien-Lu)
FENGTIEN Autonomous Military Governorate of FENGTIEN  (Mukden)Local: FENG-T''IEN Sheng : 奉天省 (zh)  (Feng-Tien-Fu)

9 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
GERMAN HANKOW Chinese Administration of the German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)Local: Deutsch Konzession in HANKOU  (Han-K''ou Te-Kuo)
GERMAN TIENTSIN Chinese administered TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)Local: Deutsch Konzession in TIENTSIN (de)  (Tekuo Tien-Tsin)
HULUNBUIR HULUNBUIR Mongolian Autonomous Province  (Khailar)Local: HU-LUN-PEI-ERH Kuan-Shang Ch''ian-Chü : 呼倫貝爾 观赏迁居 (zh) + HÖLÜN BUYIR Qota : ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (mn)  (Hai-La-Erh)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZHURIYA  (Manchzhuriya)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER (en) + Commission administrative du Quartier Diplomatique à Pékin : QUARTIER DES LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)




1 Government in Exile

VIETNAM VIETNAM Restoration League  (Canton) Prince Cuong De



8 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Congress of POLICE  (Monaco)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Petrograd)
OPIUM International Opium Convention : IOC  (The Hague)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
SINO-GERMAN ALLIANCE SINO-GERMAN Cooperation  (Peking)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)



Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

ANHWEI ANHWEI Clique  (Hwaining)
CHAHAR CHAHAR Special Administrative Region  (Changkiapao)
KWANGSI Military Province of KWANGSI : Kwangsi Clique  (Nanning)
KWEICHOW Military Province of KWEICHOW  (Kweiyang)
MA Sultanates of MA Clique  (Lanchow)
MANCHURIA Great Manchu CHINESE Empire  (Peking)
SHANSI Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu)
SHENSI Military Province of SHENSI  ((Sian))
SINKIANG SINKIANG Province : Sinkiang Clique  (Tihwa)
SUIYUAN SUIYUAN Special Administrative Region  (Kweisui)
SZECHWAN Military Province of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu)
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET under Chinese Suzerainty  (Lhasa)
YUNNAN Military Province of YUNNAN : Yunnan Clique  (Yunnan-Fu)


Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)
AMOY ISLAND British Concession of AMOY ISLAND  (Siming)
AN-HWEI ANHWEI Province  (Anking)
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Austro-Hungarian Concession  (Tientsin Austro-Hungarian Concession)
BAYANNUR BAYAN NUR League  (Linho)
BELGIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Belgian Concession  (Tientsin Belgian Concession)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH HANKOW British Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)
CHEKIANG Military Province of CHEKIANG  (Hangchow)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Russian Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHINKIANG British Concession at CHINKIANG  (Chinkiang)
CHUNGKING CHUNGKING Prefecture  (Chungking)
FORMOSA ISLAND Colonial Government of FORMOSA  (Taihoku)
FORMOSAN ABORIGINES FORMOSAN Aboriginal Peoples : Bunun Rebellion of Tafen  (Hualian Harbor)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Military Province of FUKIEN  (Foochow)
GERMAN HANKOW Chinese Administration of the German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)
GERMAN TIENTSIN Chinese administered TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)
GOLOK GOLOK Prefecture : Ngolok Tribal Region in Rebellion  (Machin)
HAINAN Region of HAINAN  (Haikou)
HOKKIEN HOKKIEN Region  (Changchow)
HONGKONG British Crown Colony of HONGKONG  (City of Victoria)
HULUNBUIR HULUNBUIR Mongolian Autonomous Province  (Khailar)
HUNAN Kwangsi Occupied Military Province of HUNAN  (Changsha)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE CHUNGKING Japanese Concession at CHUNGKING  (Chungking Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
JEHOL JEHOL Special Autonomous Mongol Territory  (Jehol)
JOSUTU Tumed JOSUTU League  (Chaoyang)
JUU UDA JUU UDA League  (Chihfeng)
KANSU KANSU Province  (Lanchow)
KANSU CORRIDOR Sultanate of KANSU in the Hehsi Corridor  (Chiayukuan)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KIAOCHOW BAY Japanese Military Governorate of KIAOCHOW BAY  (Tsingtao)
KIUKIANG British Concession at KIUKIANG  (Kiukiang)
KUANG-HSI Military Province of KWANGSI : Kwangsi Clique  (Nanning)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KUMUL KUMUL Khanate : Vassal Principality of Kumul  (Khamil)
KUOMINTANG Chinese Nationalist Party : KUOMINTANG Clique  (Canton)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Fort Bayard)
KWANGTUNG Military Province of KWANGTUNG  (Canton)
KWANTUNG Japanese Military Administration of KWANTUNG Leased Territory  (Port Arthur)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)
MATSU ISLANDS MATSU ISLANDS part of Lienkiang County  (Nankan)
NANKING INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT NANKING General Foreign Settlement  (Nanking International Settlement)
NINGSIA Sultanate of NINGSIA  (Ningsia)
ORDOS ORDOS League  (Ordos)
PAKHOI Concessions of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)
PARACEL ISLANDS PARACEL ISLANDS Group  (Woody Island)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)
PRATAS ISLANDS Atoll of PRATAS ISLANDS  (Tungsha)
QUEMOY ISLANDS QUEMOY ISLANDS part of Chinchew County  (Chinsheng)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN KHARBIN Russian Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Russian Concession  (Tientsin Russian Concesion)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SILINGOL SILINGOL League  (Silinhot)
SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE South Manchuria Railway Company : SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE  (Dairen)
SOUTHERN SHENSI SOUTHERN SHENSI Region  (Paoki)
SOUTHERN SINKIANG Military Region of SOUTHERN SINKIANG  (Kashgar)
TSINGHAI Sultanate of the Military Province of TSINGHAI  (Zining)
ULANCHAB ULANCHAB League  (Wulanhua)
WEIHAIWEI British Leased Territory of WEIHAIWEI  (Port Edward)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.