ethnia.org
 

1900-JAN-01

Zones:

All RUSSIAN Empire
(Saint Petersburg)

All RUSSIAN Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
ROSSIYSKAYA Imperiya : РОССІЙСКАЯ Имперія (ru) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol

Tsar Nicholas II
(ruler of RUSSIA since 1900-01-01)
Capital:Saint Petersburg - (Sankt-Peterburg)
Official languages: Russian (ru) .

Mainland:


EUROPEAN RUSSIA Provinces of GREAT RUSSIA  (Saint Petersburg)

46 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

ARCHANGELSK ARCHANGELSK Government  (Archangelsk)Local: ARKHANGEL''SKAYA Guberniya : АРХАНГЕЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Arkhangel''sk)
ASTRAKHAN ASTRAKHAN Government  (Astrakhan)Local: ASTRAKHANSKAYA Guberniya : АСТРАХАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Astrakhan)
BESSARABIA BESSARABIA Government  (Kishinyov)Local: BESSARABSKA Guberniya : БЕССАРАБСЬКА губернiя (ru)  (Kishinyov)
CHERNIGOV CHERNIGOV Government  (Chernigov)Local: CHERNIGOVSKAYA Guberniya : ЧЕРНИГОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Chernigov)
COURLAND COURLAND Government  (Mitau + Libau)Local: KURLYANDSKAYA Guberniya : КУРЛЯНДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru) + Gouvernement KURLAND (de)  (Mitava + Liyepaya)
DON COSSACKIA Oblast of THE DON COSSACK Host  (Cherkassk)Local: Oblast’ VOYSKA DONSKOGO : Область ВОЙСКА ДОНСКОГО (ru)  (Cherkassk)
EKATERINOSLAV EKATERINOSLAV Government  (Ekaterinoslav)Local: YEKATERINOSLAVSKAYA Guberniya : ЕКАТЕРИНОСЛАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Yekaterinoslav)
KALUGA KALUGA Government  (Kaluga)Local: KALUZHSKAYA Guberniya : КАЛУЖСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kaluga)
KAZAN KAZAN Government  (Kazan)Local: KAZANSKAYA Guberniya : КАЗАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kazan)
KHARKOV KHARKOV Government  (Kharkov)Local: KHARKOVSKAYA Guberniya : ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kharkov)
KHERSON KHERSON Government  (Kherson)Local: KHERSONSKAYA Guberniya : ХЕРСОНСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Kherson)
KOSTROMA KOSTROMA Government  (Kostroma)Local: KOSTROMSKAYA Guberniya : КОСТРОМСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kostroma)
KURSK KURSK Government  (Kursk)Local: KURSKAYA Guberniya : КУРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kursk)
LIVONIA LIVONIA Government  (Riga)Local: LIFLYANDSKAYA Guberniya : ЛИФЛЯНДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru) + Gouvernement LIVLAND (de)  (Riga)
LOWER NOVGOROD LOWER NOVGOROD Government  (Nizhni Novgorod)Local: NIZHEGORODSKAYA Guberniya : НИЖЕГОРОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Nizhni Novgorod)
NOVGOROD NOVGOROD Government  (Novgorod)Local: NOVGORODSKAYA Guberniya : НОВГОРОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Novgorod)
OLONETZ OLONETZ Government  (Petrozavodsk)Local: OLONETSKAYA Guberniya : ОЛОНЕЦКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Petrozavodsk)
OREL OREL Government  (Orel)Local: ORLOVSKAYA Guberniya : ОРЛОВСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Oryol)
ORENBURG ORENBURG Government  (Orenburg)Local: ORENBURGSKAYA Guberniya : ОРЕНБУРГСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Orenburg)
PENZA PENZA Government  (Penza)Local: PENZENSKAYA Guberniya : ПЕНЗЕНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Penza)
PERM PERM Government  (Perm)Local: PERMSKAYA Guberniya : ПЕРМСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Perm)
PODOLIA PODOLIA Government  (Kamenetz-Podolsk)Local: PODOLSKAYA Guberniya : ПОДОЛЬСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Kamienets-Podolskyi)
POLTAVIA POLTAVIA Government : Governement of Poltava  (Poltava)Local: POLTAVSKAYA Guberniya : ПОЛТАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Poltava)
PSKOV PSKOV Government  (Pskov)Local: PSKOVSKAYA Guberniya : ПСКОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Pskov)
RYAZAN RYAZAN Government  (Ryazan)Local: RYAZANSKAYA Guberniya : РЯЗАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Ryazan'')
SAINT PETERSBURG SAINT PETERSBURG Government  (Saint Petersburg)Local: SANKT-PETERBURGSKAYA Guberniya : САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Sankt-Peterburg)
SAMARA SAMARA Government  (Samara)Local: SAMARSKAYA Guberniya : САМАРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Samara)
SARATOV SARATOV Government  (Saratov)Local: SARATOVSKAYA Gubernia : САРАТОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Saratov)
SIMBIRSK SIMBIRSK Government  (Simbirsk)Local: SIMBIRSKAYA Guberniya : СИМБИРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Simbirsk)
SMOLENSK SMOLENSK Government  (Smolensk)Local: SMOLENSKAYA Guberniya : СМОЛЕНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Smolensk)
STAVROPOL Caucasian Governement of STAVROPOL  (Stavropol)Local: STAVROPOLSKAYA Guberniya : СТАВРОПОЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Stavropol'')
TAMBOV TAMBOV Government  (Tambov)Local: TAMBOVSKAYA Guberniya : ТАМБОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tambov)
TAURIDA TAURIDA Government  (Simferopol)Local: TAVRICHESKAYA Guberniya : ТАВРИЧЕСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Simferopol)
TOBOLSK Siberian Government of TOBOLSK  (Tobolsk)Local: TOBOLSKAYA Guberniya : ТОБОЛЬСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Tobolsk)
TOMSK Siberian Governement of TOMSK  (Tomsk)Local: TOMSKAYA Guberniya : ТОМСКАЯ губе́рния (ru)  (Tomsk)
TULA TULA Government  (Tula)Local: TULSKAYA Guberniya : ТУЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tula)
TURGAI Centro-Asian Oblast of TURGAI  (Kustanai)Local: TURGAYSKAYA Oblast'' : ТУРГАИйСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kustanay)
TVER TVER Government  (Tver)Local: TVERSKAYA Guberniya : ТВЕРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tver)
UFA UFA Government  (Ufa)Local: UPHIMSKAYA Guberniya : УФИ́МСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Ufa)
URALSK Centro-Asian Oblast of URALSK  (Uralsk)Local: URAL''SKAYA Oblast'' : УРАЛЬСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Ural''sk)
VLADIMIR VLADIMIR Government  (Vladimir)Local: VLADIMIRSKAYA Guberniya : ВЛАДИМИРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vladimir)
VOLHYNIA VOLHYNIAN Government  (Zhitomir)Local: VOLYNSKAYA Guberniya : ВОЛЫНСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Zhitomir)
VOLOGDA VOLOGDA Government  (Vologda)Local: VOLOGODSKAYA Guberniya : ВОЛОГОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vologda)
VORONEZH VORONEZH Government  (Voronezh)Local: VORONEZHSKAYA Guberniya : ВОРОНЕЖСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Voronezh)
VYATKA VYATKA Government  (Vyatka)Local: VYATSKAYA Guberniya : ВЯТСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vyatka)
YAROSLAV YAROSLAV Government  (Yaroslav)Local: YAROSLAVSKAYA Gubernia : ЯРОСЛАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Yaroslav)


2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

FINLAND Grand Duchy of FINLAND  (Helsingfors) Tsar Nicholas II
WARSAW Governorate-General of Warsaw : Provinces of the VISTULA COUNTRY Territory [Polish Kingdom in Personal Union with Russia]  (Warsaw) Tsar Nicholas II


3 Assisted Entities

BUKHARA Emirate of BUKHARA [Russian Protectorate]  (Bukhara) Emir Abd Al-Ahad Khan
CRETE CRETAN State [International Council of the Principality of Crete under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Chania) King George I
KHIVA Khanate of KHIVA [Russian Protectorate]  (Khiva) Khan Muhammad Rahim Bahadur



16 Territories:

AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession [Boxer Rebellion]  (Aigunov)Local: AYGUNSKAYA Kontsessiya : АЙГУНСКАЯ Концессия (ru)  (Aygunov)
CAUCASUS Government-General of the CAUCASUS  (Tiflis)Local: KAVKAZKOE Glavnoupravlyayushchiy : КАВКАЗСКОЕ главноуправляющий (ru)  (Tiflis)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)Local: Kitaisko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga - KVZD : Китайско-Восточная Железная Дорога - КВЖД (ru)  (Kharbin)
ESTONIA Government of ESTONIA : Duchy of Esthonia  (Reval)Local: ESTLYANDSKAYA Guberniya : ЭСТЛЯНДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru) + Gouvernement ESTHLAND (de)  (Revel)
FAR EAST Siberian Government-General of AMUR : Russian Far East  (Khabarovsk)Local: AMURSKAYA General-Gubernatorstvo : АМУРСКАЯ Генерал-Губернаторство (ru)  (Khabarovsk)
KALGUYEV ISLAND Unorganized Territory of KALGUYEV ISLAND  (Bugrino)Local: Ostrov KALGUYEV : Остров КAЛГУЕВ (ru)  (Bugrino)
KWANTUNG Russian Leased Territory of the Province of KWANTUNG  (Dalny)Local: KVANTUNSKAYA Oblast : КВАНТУНСКАЯ область (ru)  (Dalny)
MUSCOVY Government-General of MOSCOW  (Moscow)Local: MOSKOVSKOYE General-Gubernatorstvo : МОСКОВСКОЕ Генерал-Губернаторство (ru)  (Moskva)
NEW ZEMBLA NEW ZEMBLA Territory  (Malye Karmakuly)Local: NOVAYA ZEMLYA Territoriya : НОВАЯ ЗЕМЛЯ Территория (ru) + Matka : MATKA (yrk)  (Malye Karmakuly)
PETER THE FIRST ISLAND Unclaimed Territory of PETER THE FIRST ISLAND  ((Saint Petersburg))Local: Ostrov Petra I : OSTROV PETR PERVYY - Остров Петра I : ОСТРОВ ПЕТР ПЕРВЫЙ (ru)  ((Sankt-Peterburg))
RUSSIAN ARCTIC OCEAN Unorganized RUSSIAN ARCTIC OCEAN  (-)Local: ROSSIYSKIY LEDOVITYY OKEAN : РОССИЙСКИЙ ЛЕДОВИТЫЙ ОКЕАН (ru)  (-)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)Local: KHAN''KOU Kontsessiya : ХАНЬКОУ Концессия (ru)  (Khan''kou)
RUSSIAN TURKESTAN Government-General of TURKESTAN  (Tashkend)Local: RUSSKIY TURKESTAN General-Gubernatorstvo : РУССКИЙ ТУРКЕСТАН генерал-губернаторство (ru)  (Tashkend)
SIBERIA Siberian Government-General of IRKUTSK in Asian Russia  (Irkutsk)Local: IRKUTSKOYE General-Gubernatorstvo : ИРКУТСКОЕ Генерал-Губернаторство (ru)  (Irkutsk)
STEPPE Government-General of THE STEPPE  (Semipalatinsk)Local: STEPNOE General-Gubernatorstvo : СТЕПНОЕ генерал-губернаторство (ru)  (Semipalatinsk)
WESTERN RUSSIA WESTERN Territory  (Minsk)Local: ZAPADNIY Kray : ЗАПАДНЫЙ край (ru)  (Minsk)

7 Condominiums:

INNER MANCHURIA Protectorate of MANCHURIA [Russian Sphere of Influence in Inner Manchuria]  (Aigunov)Local: MANCHZHURIYA Territoriya : МАНЬЧЖУРИЯ Территория (ru) + HEI-LUNG-CHIANG : 黑龍江 (zh)  (Aigunov)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: Internationale Konzession von KULANGSU-INSEL (de) + International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND (en) + Concesión Internacional de ISLA KULANGSU (es) + Concession internationale de l''ÎLE KOULANGSEU (fr) + Concessione internazionale dell''iSOLA KULANGSU (it) + KORONSU-JIMA no Kokusai Sokai : コロンス島の国際租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van KULANGSU EILAND (nl) + Concessão Internacional da ILHA KULANGSU (pt) + Kulan : Mezhdunarodnyy Kontsessiya KULANGYU OSTROVA : Международный Концессия КУЛАНГЮ ОСТРОВА (ru) + KU-LANG-YÜ Kuo-Tsì T''e-Hsü Ching-Ying : 鼓浪嶼國際特許經營 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Region  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZURIYA Territoriya : МАНЬЧЖУРИЯ Территория (ru) + MAN-CHOU-LI Ti-Ch''ü : 滿洲里地區 (zh)  (Manchzhuriya)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter [Boxer Rebelion]  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов - SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)
TUMEN RIVER Russian Sphere of Influence on TUMEN RIVER  (Tumen)Local: Krai TYMANNYE : Kрай ТУМАННАЯ (ru) + TYMANGAN : 두만강 (ko)  (Tymannye)



Military entity abroad or locally shared:

SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов - SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)


16 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
EASTERN ORTHODOXISM Orthodox Catholic Church : EASTERN ORTHODOX Church  (Phanar)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
HAGUE CONVENTION Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes : Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
SANITARY International SANITARY Confererence  (Paris)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

DE LONG ISLANDS Archipelago of DE LONG ISLANDS  (Jeannette island + Henrietta Island)
EAST PRUSSIA Province of EAST PRUSSIA  (Koenigsberg in Prussia)
FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND Island Territory  (Northbrook Island)
KURIL ISLANDS Archipelago of KURIL ISLANDS  (Kunashir)
PAZ RIVER PAZ RIVER Area  (Nellimo)
TANNU-URIANKHAY Unorganized Autonomous Region of TANNU-URIANKHAY  (Kyzyl)
VICTORIA ISLAND VICTORIA ISLAND Territory  (Victoria Island)
VYBORG VYBORG Government  (Vyborg)
WRANGEL ISLAND United States Territory of New Columbia : WRANGEL ISLAND  (Ureliki)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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