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1990-AUG-25

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Sovereign State of the BYELORUSSIAN Soviet Socialist Republic : BYELORUSSIA (Minsk)  Yefrem Sokolov
WHITE EMIGRES Organizations Outside Russia : WHITE RUSSIA (New York City + Montreal)  Metropolitan Vitaly
RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RUSSIA (Moscow)  Ivan Polozkov

Alternate Entities with similar names

RUSSIA  SOVIET UNION 
  
(Moscow) - (Moscow) -

RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Flag or logo since 1954-01-09
ROSSIYSKAYA Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : РОССИЙСКАЯ Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика (ru)
Emblem or Symbol

Ivan Polozkov
(ruler of RUSSIA since 1990-06-22)

Mikhail Gorbachev
(ruler of SOVIET UNION since 1985-03-11)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Moscow(Moskva)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


RUSSIA RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic  (Moscow)

51 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

AMUR AMUR Oblast  (Blagoveshchensk)Local: AMURSKAYA Oblast : АМУ́РСКАЯ о́бласть (ru)  (Blagoveshchensk)
ARCHANGELSK ARCHANGELSK Oblast  (Archangelsk)Local: ARKHANGELSKAYA Oblast'' : АРХАНГЕЛЬСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Arkhangel''sk)
ASTRAKHAN ASTRAKHAN Oblast  (Astrakhan)Local: ASTRAKHANSKAYA Oblast'' : АСТРАХА́НСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Astrakhan)
BIELGOROD BIELGOROD Oblast  (Bielgorod)Local: BELGORODSKAYA Oblast'' : БЕЛГОРОДСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Belgorod)
BRYANSK BRYANSK Oblast  (Bryansk)Local: BRYANSKAYA Oblast'' : БРЯНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Bryansk)
CHELYABINSK CHELYABINSK Oblast  (Chelyabinsk)Local: CHELYABINSKAYA Oblast'' : ЧЕЛЯБИНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Chelyabinsk)
CHITA CHITA Oblast  (Chita)Local: CHITINSKAYA Oblast'' : ЧИТИ́НСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Chita)
GORKY GORKY Oblast  (Gorky)Local: GORKOVSKAYA Oblast'' : ГОРЬКОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Gorkiy)
IRKUTSK IRKUTSK Oblast  (Irkutsk)Local: IRKUTSKAYA Oblast'' : ИРКУ́ТСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Irkutsk)
IVANOVO IVANOVO Oblast  (Ivanovo)Local: IVANOVSKAYA Oblast'' : ИВАНОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Ivanovo)
KALININGRAD Enclave of the KALININGRAD Oblast  (Kaliningrad)Local: KALININGRADSKAYA Oblast : КАЛИНИНГРА́ДСКАЯ о́бласть (ru)  (Kaliningrad)
KALUGA KALUGA Oblast  (Kaluga)Local: KALUZHSKAYA Oblast'' : КАЛУЖСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kaluga)
KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA Oblast  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky)Local: KAMCHATSKAYA Oblast : КАМЧАТСКАЯ область (ru)  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy)
KEMEROVO KEMEROVO Oblast  (Kemerovo)Local: KEMEVOSKAYA Oblast'' : КЕТЕВОСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kemerovo)
KIROV KIROV Oblast  (Kirov)Local: KIROVSKAYA Oblast'' : КИРОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kirov)
KOSTROMA KOSTROMA Oblast  (Kostroma)Local: KOSTROMSKAYA Oblast'' : КОСТРОМСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kostroma)
KUIBYSHEV KUIBYSHEV Oblast  (Kuibyshev)Local: KUYBYSHEVSKAYA Oblast : КУЙБЫШЕВСКАЯ Oбласть (ru)  (Kuybyshev)
KURGAN KURGAN Oblast  (Kurgan)Local: KURGANSKAYA Oblast'' : КУРГАНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kurgan)
KURSK KURSK Oblast  (Kursk)Local: KURSKAYA Oblast'' : КУРСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kursk)
LENINGRAD LENINGRAD Oblast  ((Leningrad))Local: LENINGRADSKAYA Oblast'' : ЛЕНИНГРАДСКАЯ Область (ru)  ((Leningrad))
LENINGRAD CITY City of LENINGRAD  (Leningrad)Local: LENINGRAD Gorod : ЛЕНИНГРАД Город (ru)  (Leningrad)
LIPETSK LIPETSK Oblast  (Lipetsk)Local: LIPETSKAYA Oblast'' : ЛИПЕЦКАЯ Область (ru)  (Lipetsk)
MAGADAN MAGADAN Oblast  (Magadan)Local: MAGADANSKAYA Oblast'' : МАГАДАНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Magadan)
MOSCOW MOSCOW Oblast  ((Moscow) + Krasnogorsk)Local: MOSKOVSKAYA Oblast'' : МОСКОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  ((Moskva) + Krasnogorsk)
MOSCOW CITY City of MOSCOW  (Moscow)Local: MOSKVA Gorod : МОСКВА Город (ru)  (Moskva)
MURMANSK MURMANSK Oblast  (Murmansk)Local: MURMANSKAYA Oblast'' : МУРМАНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Murmansk)
NEW SIBERIA NOVOSIBIRSK Oblast : New Siberia Oblast  (Novosibirsk)Local: NOVOSIBIRSKAYA Oblast : НОВОСИБИ́РСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Novosibirsk)
NOVGOROD NOVGOROD Oblast  (Novgorod)Local: NOVGORODSKAYA Oblast'' : НОВГОРОДСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Novgorod)
OMSK OMSK Oblast  (Omsk)Local: OMSKAYA Oblast'' : ОМСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Omsk)
OREL OREL Oblast  (Orel)Local: ORLOVSKAYA Oblast'' : ОРЛОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Oryol)
ORENBURG ORENBURG Oblast  (Orenburg)Local: ORENBURGSKAYA Oblast'' : ОРЕНБУ́РГСКАЯ о́бласть (ru)  (Orenburg)
PENZA PENZA Oblast  (Penza)Local: PENZENSKAYA Oblast'' : ПЕНЗЕНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Penza)
PERM PERM Oblast  (Perm)Local: PÉRMSKAYA Oblast'' : ПЕ́РМСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Perm)
PSKOV PSKOV Oblast  (Pskov)Local: PSKOVSKAYA Oblast'' : ПСКОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Pskov)
ROSTOV ROSTOV Oblast  (Rostov-on-Don)Local: ROSTOVSKAYA Oblast'' : РОСТО́ВСКАЯ о́бласть (ru)  (Rostov-na-Donu)
RYAZAN RYAZAN Oblast  (Ryazan)Local: RYAZANSKAYA Oblast'' : РЯЗАНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Ryazan'')
SAKHALIN SAKHALIN Oblast  (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)Local: SAKHALINSKAYA Oblast'' : САХАЛИ́НСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
SARATOV SARATOV Oblast  (Saratov)Local: SARATOVSKAYA Oblast'' : САРА́ТОВСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Saratov)
SMOLENSK SMOLENSK Oblast  (Smolensk)Local: SMOLENSKAYA Oblast'' : СМОЛЕНСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Smolensk)
SVERDLOVSK SVERDLOVSK Oblast  (Sverdlovsk)Local: SVERDLOVSKAYA Oblast : СВЕРДЛОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Sverdlovsk)
TAMBOV TAMBOV Oblast  (Tambov)Local: TAMBOVSKAYA Oblast'' : ТАМБОВСКАЯ Oбласть (ru)  (Tambov)
TIUMEN TIUMEN Oblast  (Tiumen)Local: TYUMÉNSKAYA Oblast : ТЮМЕ́НСКАЯ О́бласть (ru)  (Tyumen'')
TOMSK TOMSK Oblast  (Tomsk)Local: TOMSKAYA Oblast : ТОМСКАЯ область (ru)  (Tomsk)
TULA TULA Oblast  (Tula)Local: TUL''SKAYA Oblast'' : ТУЛЬСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Tula)
TVER TVER Oblast  (Tver)Local: TVERSKAYA Oblast'' : ТВЕРСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Tver)
ULYANOVSK ULYANOVSK Oblast  (Ulyanovsk)Local: ULYANOVSKAYA Oblast'' : УЛЬЯНОВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Ulyanovsk)
VLADIMIR VLADIMIR Oblast  (Vladimir)Local: VLADIMIRSKAYA Oblast'' : ВЛАДИМИРСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Vladimir)
VOLGOGRAD VOLGOGRAD Oblast  (Volgograd)Local: VOLGOGRADSKAYA Oblast'' : ВОЛГОГРАДСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Volgograd)
VOLOGDA VOLOGDA Oblast  (Vologda)Local: VOLOGODSKAYA Oblast'' : ВОЛОГОДСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Vologda)
VORONEZH VORONEZH Oblast  (Voronezh)Local: VORONEZHSKAYA Oblast'' : ВОРОНЕЖСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Voronezh)
YAROSLAV YAROSLAV Oblast  (Yaroslav)Local: YAROSLAVSKAYA Oblast'' : ЯРОСЛАВСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Yaroslav)




1 Territory in Americas:

KORYAKIA KORYAKIA Autonomous District  (Palana)Local: KORYAKSKIY Avtonomny Okrug : КОРЯКСКИЙ автономный округ (ru) + ČAV’ČYVA okrug : ЧАВ’ЧЫВА округ (kpy)  (Palana)

12 Territories in Asia:

AGA-BURYATIA AGIN-BURYAT Autonomous Region  (Aginskoye)Local: AGINSKIY BURYATSKIY Avtonomnyy Okrug : АГИНСКИЙ БУРЯТСКИЙ Автономный Округ (ru) + AGYN BURYAADAI Autonomyto Toirog : Агын Буряадай автономито тойрог (bua)  (Aginskoye)
ALTAY ALTAY Territory  (Barnaul)Local: ALTAYSKIY Kray : АЛТАЙСКИЙ Край (ru)  (Barnaul)
BURYATIA BURYAT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ulan-Ude)Local: BURYATSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : БУРЯТСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + BURYAADAY Avtonomito Sovet Sotsialis Respublika : БУРЯАДАЙ Автономито Совет Социалис Республика (bua)  (Ulan-Ude)
DOLGANO-NENETSIA Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous District : TAIMYRIA  (Dudinka)Local: Dolgano-Nenetsky Avtonnomny Okrug : TAYMYRIYA - Долгано-Ненецкий Aвтономный Oкруг : ТАЙМЫРИЯ (ru) + Dolgan-Nenəj Okrug : TAYMIR - Долган-Ненэй Oкруг : ТАЙМЫР (dlg) + Dulğan-Nenəče : TAYMIR - Долган-Ненцы Oкруг : ТАЙМЫР (yrk)  (Dudinka)
EVENKIA Evenk Autonomous District : EVENKIA  (Tura)Local: EVENKIYSKY Avtonomny Okrug : ЭВЕНКИ́ЙСКИЙ автоно́мный о́круг (ru) + EVEDY Avtomody Okrug : ЭВЕДЫ Автомоды Округ (evn)  (Tura)
KHABAROVSK KHABAROVSK Territory  (Khabarovsk)Local: KHABAROVSKIY Kray : ХАБА́РОВСКИЙ Край (ru)  (Khabarovsk)
KRASNOYARSK KRASNOYARSK Territory  (Krasnonyarsk)Local: KRASNOYARSKIY Kray : КРАСНОЯ́РСКИЙ Край (ru)  (Krasnonyarsk)
MARITIME MARITIME Territory : Primorie Territory  (Vladivostok)Local: PRIMORSKIY Kray : ПРИМОРСКИЙ край (ru)  (Vladivostok)
TUVA TUVINIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kyzyl)Local: TUVINSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : ТУВИНСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + TYVA Avtonomnug Sovet Socialistig Respublika : ТЫВА Автономнуг Совет Социалистиг Республика (tyv)  (Kyzyl)
UPPER ALTAY UPPER ALTAY Autonomous Oblast  (Gorno-Altaysk)Local: GORNO-ALTAYSKAYA Avtonomnaya Oblast'' : ГОРНО-АЛТАЙСКАЯ Aвтономная Oбласть (ru) + GORNO-ALTAYSKAYA Avtonomnaya Oblast'' : АЛТАЙ Aвтономная Oбласть (alt)  (Gorno-Altaysk)
UST HORDE BURYATIA UST-ORDYN BURYAT Autonomous Region : Ust Horde Buryat Autonomous Region  (Ust-Ordynsky)Local: UST''-ORDÝNSKIY BURYÁTSKIY Avtonómnyy О́krug : УСТЬ-ОРДЫ́НСКИЙ БУРЯ́ТСКИЙ Автоно́мный О́круг (ru) + UST''-ORDYN BURJAADAJ Okrug : УСТЬ-ОРДЫН БУРЯАДАЙ Округ (bua)  (Ust-Ordynsky)
YAKUTIA YAKUT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yakutsk)Local: YAKUTSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : ЯКУТСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + SAKHA Avtonomnay Sebieskey Sotsialisticheskey Respublikata : CAXA автономнай сэбиэскэй социалистическэй республиката (sah)  (Yakutsk)

15 Territories in Europe:

BASHKIRIA BASHKIR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ufa)Local: BASHKIRSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : БАШКИРСКАЯ Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика (ru) + BASHKORT Avtonomiyaly Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikahy : БАШҠОРТ Автономиялы Совет Социалистик Республикаhы (ba)  (Ufa)
CHECHENO-INGUSHIA CHECHENO-INGUSH Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Grozny)Local: CHECHEN-INGUSHSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : ЧЕЧЕ́НО-ИНГУ́ШСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + NOKHCHO-GIALGIAYN Avtonomnin Sovetski Sotsialisticheski Respublika : НОХЧ-ГІАЛГІАЙН Автономнин Совецки Социалистически Республика (ce) + NOKHCHO-GIALGIAYN Avtonomnin Sovetski Sotsialisticheski Respublika : НОХЧ-ГІАЛГІАЙН Автономнин Советски Социалистически Республика (inh)  (Groznyi)
CHUVASHIA CHUVASH Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Cheboksary)Local: CHUVASHSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : ЧУВАШСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республик (ru) + CHĂVASH Avtonomlă Sovet Sotsiallă Respubliki : ЧĂВАШ Автономлă Совет Социаллă Республики (cv)  (Cheboksary)
DAGHESTAN DAGHESTAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Makhachkala)Local: DAGESTAN  (Makhachkala)
KABARDINO-BALKARIA KABARDINO-BALKAR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Nalchik)Local: KABARDINO-BALKARSKAYA Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : КАБАРДИНО-БАЛКАРСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + K''EBERDEY-BAL''K''ER Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublike : КЪЭБЭРДЕЙ-БАЛЪКЪЭР Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республикэ (kbd) + K''ABARTY-MALK''AR Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : КЪАБАРТЫ-МАЛКЪАР Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (krc)  (Nalchik)
KALMYKIA KALMYK Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Elista)Local: KALMYSKAYA Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : КАЛМЫЦКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + XAL''MG Avtonomn Sovetsk Soscialističesk Respublik : ХАЛЬМГ Автономн Советск Социалистическ Республик (xal)  (Elista)
KARACHAY-CHERKESSIA KARACHAY-CHERKESS Autonomous Oblast  (Cherkessk)Local: KARACHAYEVO-CHERKESSKAYA Avtonomnaya Oblast  (Cherkessk)
KOMI-PERMYAKIA KOMI-PERMYAK Autonomous District  (Kudymkar)Local: KOMI-PERMYATSKIY Avtonomny Okrug : КО́МИ-ПЕРМЯ́ЦКИЙ Автономный О́круг (ru) + PEREM-KOMI Avtonomiya Kytsh : ПЕРЫМ-КОМИ Аvtonomiya Кытш (koi)  (Kudymkar)
KOMIA KOMI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Syktyvkar)Local: Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika KOMI : Автономная Советская Социалистическая республика КОМИ (ru) + KOMI Asves''ködlan Sövetsköy Sotsialistichesköy Respublika : КОМИ Асвеськӧдлан Сӧветскӧй Социалистическӧй Республика (kv)  (Syktyvkar)
KRASNODAR KRASNODAR Territory  (Krasnodar)Local: KRASNODARSKIY Kray : КРАСНОДА́РСКИЙ Край (ru)  (Krasnodar)
MARI MARI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yoshkar-Ola)Local: MARIYSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : МАРИЙСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + MARIY Avtonom Sovet Sotsializm Respublik : МАРИЙ Автоном Совет Социализм Республик (chm)  (Yoshkar-Ola)
MORDVINIA MORDVINIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Saransk)Local: MORDVOVSKAYA Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : МОРДОВСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + MORDOVIYA Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : МОРДОВИЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (my)v) + MORDOVIYA Avtonomnaya Sovietskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika : МОРДОВИЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (mdf)  (Saransk)
STAVROPOL STAVROPOL Territory  (Stavropol)Local: STAVROPÓL''SKIY Kray : СТАВРОПО́ЛЬСКИЙ Край (ru)  (Stavropol)
TATARIA TATAR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kazan)Local: TATARSKAYA Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Socialisticheskaya Respublika : ТАТАРСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая республика (ru) + TATARSTAN Avtonomiyale Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasy : ТАТАРСТАН Автономияле Совет Социалистик Республикасы (tt)  (Kazan)
UDMURTIA UDMURT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Izhevsk)Local: UDMURTSKAYA Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika : УДМУРТСКАЯ Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (ru) + UDMURT Avtonomnoj Sovetskoj Socialistićeskoj Respublika : УДМУРТ Автономной Советской Социалистической Республика (udm)  (Izhevsk)





Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

CISCAUCASIA Confederation of Mountain Peoples of CAUCASUS  ((Sukhumi))
COSSACKIA Union of COSSACKS  ((Moscow))
KARELIA Sovereign State of the KARELIAN Soviet Socialist Republic  (Petrozadovsk)
NORTH OSSETIA Sovereign State of the NORTH OSSETIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Vladikavkaz)
SOVIET UNION Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR  (Moscow)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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