ethnia.org
 

2020-OCT-18

Zones:


BELARUS (Minsk) UNO Member Republic of BELARUS : Republic of Byelorussia : President Alexander Lukashenko
UNION STATE (Moscow) De facto Semi-Independent Union State of Russia and Belarus : UNION STATE : Grigory Rapota
RUSSIA (Moscow + Saint Petersburg) UNO Member RUSSIAN Federation : President Vladimir Putin

Other Entities with similar names

RUSSIAN Federation
(Moscow + Saint Petersburg)

RUSSIAN Federation

Flag or logo since 1993-12-11*
ROSSIYSKAYA Federatsiya : РОССИЙСКАЯ Федерация (ru) UNO Member
Emblem or Symbol*

President Vladimir Putin
(ruler of RUSSIA since 2012-05-07)
Capital:Moscow + Saint Petersburg - (Moskva + Sankt-Peterburg)
Official languages: Russian (ru) .

Mainland:


RUSSIA RUSSIAN Federation  (Moscow + Saint Petersburg)

8 Federated Mainland Divisions:

CENTRAL RUSSIA CENTRAL Federal District  (Moscow)Local: TSENTRALNY Federalny Okrug : ЦЕНТРАЛЬНЫЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Moskva)
FAR EASTERN FAR EASTERN Federal District  (Khabarovsk)Local: DALNEVOSTOCHNY Federalny Okrug : ДАЛЬНЕВОСТОЧНЫЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Khabarovsk)
NORTH CAUCASUS NORTH CAUCASIAN Federal District  (Pyatigorsk)Local: SEVERO-KAVKAZSKIY Federalny Okrug : СЕВЕРО-КАВКАЗСКИЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Pyatigorsk)
NORTHWESTERN RUSSIA NORTHWESTERN Federal District  (Saint Petersburg)Local: SEVERO-ZAPADNIY Federalny Okrug : СЕ́ВЕРО-ЗА́ПАДНЫЙ Федера́льный О́круг (ru)  (Sankt-Peterburg)
SIBERIA SIBERIAN Federal District  (Novosibirsk)Local: SIBIRSKIY Federalny Okrug : СИБИРСКИЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Novosibirsk)
SOUTHERN RUSSIA SOUTHERN Federal District  (Rostov-on-Don)Local: YUZHNIY Federalny Okrug : ЮЖНЫЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Rostov-na-Donu)
URAL URAL Federal District  (Ekaterinburg)Local: URALSKIY Federalny Okrug : УРАЛЬСКИЙ Федеральный Округ (ru)  (Yekaterinburg)
VOLGA VOLGA Federal District  (Nizhni Novgorod)Local: PRIVOLZHSKIY Federalny Okrug : ПРИВО́ЛЖСКИЙ Федера́льный О́круг (ru)  (Nizhni Novgorod)


2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

INDEPENDENT STATES Commonwealth of Independent States : CIS  (Minsk) Secretary Sergey Lebedev
UNION STATE Union State of Russia and Belarus : UNION STATE  (Moscow) Grigory Rapota


7 Assisted Entities

ABKHAZIA ABKHAZIAN Republic [Russian Military Assistance]  (Sukhumi) President Aslan Bzhania
CENTRAL-AFRICA Central African Republic : CAR [United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic-UNISMCAR]  (Bangui) President Faustin-Archange Touadera
DONETSK People''s Republic of DONETSK  (Donetsk) Denis Pushilin
LUGANSK LUGANSK People''s Republic  (Lugansk) Leonid Pasechnik
SOUTH OSSETIA-ALANIA Republic of SOUTH OSSETIA State of Alania [Russian Military Assistance]  (Tskhinvali) President Anatoliy Bibilov
SYRIA SYRIAN Arab Republic [Russian Military Assistance]  (Damascus) President Bashar Al-Assad
TRANSNISTRIA TRANSNISTRIAN Moldavian Republic  (Tiraspol) President Vadim Krasnoselsky



9 Condominiums:

BAIKONUR Kazakh Leased Territory of the Russian Federal City of BAIKONUR  (Baikonur)Local: BAYKONUR Gorod Federalnogo : БАЙКОНУР Город Федерального (ru) + BAIQOŃYR Qalasy : БАЙҚОҢЫР қаласы (kk)  (Baykonur)
BOSRA AND TAFAS Rebels and Syrian Government Controlled Enclaves of BOSRA AND TAFAS  (Bosra + Tafas)Local: Aradi BUSRA WA TAFAS : أراضي بصرى و طفس (ar)  (Busra ash-Sham + Tafas)
DNIESTER VALLEY Joint Control Commission of the DNIESTER VALLEY Security Zone [OSCE Mission to Moldova]  (Bender)Local: Ob''yedinennaya Kontrol''naya Komissiya : Zona bezopasnosti DNESTR DOLINA - Объединенная Контрольная Комиссия : Зона безопасности ДНЕСТР ДОЛИНА (ru) + Comisia Unificată de Control : Zona de securitate al VĂII NISTRULUI - Кomисиa ЬЮнификaтă де Контрол : Zoнa де секьюритатэ аль ВAИИ НISTRЬЮЛЬЮИ (mo)  (Bender)
HASEKE Enclave of the Governorate of HASEKE  (Kamishli-South)Local: Muhafazah AL-HASAKAH : محافظة الحسكة (ar)  (Qamishli Al-Janub)
NORTHERN SYRIA BUFFER ZONE Turkey-Russia Demilitarized Zone : NORTHERN SYRIA BUFFER ZONE  (Murik)Local: Al-Mintaqat al-Eazilat fi SHAMAL SURIYA : المنطقة العازلة في شمال سوريا (ar) + Bufernaya zona SEVERNOY SIRII : Буферная Зона СЕВЕРНОЙ СИРИИ (ru) + KUZEY SURIYE''nin Tampon Bölgesi (tr)  (Murak)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dara''â)
SAIMAA CANAL ZONE SAIMAA CANAL ZONE leased by Finland to Russia  (Saima Canal)Local: SAIMAAN KANAVA Alue (fi) + SAYMENSKIY KANAL Zona : САЙМЕНСКИЙ КАНАЛ Зона (ru)  (Saymenskiy Kanal)
SYRIAN KURDISTAN Syro-Kurd Joint Control Areas of NORTHERN SYRIA  (Rakka)Local: Mintaqat as-Saytarat al-Mushtarakat fi SHAMAL SURIYA : منطقة السيطرة المشتركة في شمال سوريا (ar) + Qada Kontrola Hevbeş a li BAKURÊ SÛRIYÊ (ku)  (Ar-Raqqah)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)Local: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE (en) + Force des Nations-Unies chargée d’Observer le Désengagement : ZONE FNUOD (fr) + UNDOF : أندوف (ar)  (Al-Qunaytirah'')



1 Government in Exile

UKRAINE-IN-EXILE UKRAINIAN Salvation Committee  (Moscow) Mykola Azarov



Military entities abroad or locally shared:

AYNI AYNI Air Force Base  (Ayni)Local: Pojgohi Havoii AJNI : Пойгоҳи Ҳавоии АЙНИ (tg) + Baza Vozdushnyye Sily AYNI : База Воздушные Cилы АЙНИ (ru) + AYNI Air Force Base (en)  (Ayni)
BALKHASH STATION Sary Shagan Radar Node : BALKHASH Radar Station  (Sary Shagan)Local: BALKHASH Radiolokatsionnaya Stantsiya : БАЛХАШ Радиолокационная Cтанция (ru)  (Sary Shagan)
BARANOVICHI BASES Russian Bases of BARANOVICHI  (Volga)Local: GANTSEVICHAK Radiolokatsionnaya Stantsiya : ГАНЦЕВИЧАХ Pадиолокационная Cтанция (ru) + HANCAVIČY Radyjolakacyjnaja Stancyja : ГАНЦАВІЧЫ Pадыёлакацыйная Cтанцыя (be)  (Volha)
CAM RANH BAY Russian Naval Air Base of CAM RANH BAY  (Cam Ranh Bay)Local: Basa KAMRANH : База КАМРА́НЬ (ru)  (Kamranh)
COBASNA COBASNA Ammunition Depot  (Cobasna)Local: KOLBASNA sklad boyepripasov : КОЛБАСНА склад боеприпасов (ru) + Sklad boyeprypasiv KOBASNA : Склад боєприпасів КОБАСНА (uk) + Depozit de muniții COBASNA : Депозит де муниции КОБАСНА (mo)  (Cobasna)
FARKHOR FARKHOR Air Base  (Farkhor)Local: FARKHOR Air Base (en) + Pojgohi Havoii FARXOR : Пойгоҳи Ҳавоии ФАРХОР (tg)  (Farkhor)
GUDAUTA BASE Russian Military Base of GUDAUTA  (Gudauta Base)Local: Baza GUDAUTA : База ГУДАУТА (ru)  (Baza Gudauta)
KAMISHLI BASE KAMISHLI Base  (Kamishli Airport)Local: Matar Al-QAMISHLI ad-Duwali : مطار القامشلي الدولي (ar) + Mezhdunarodnyy Aeroport Al''-KAMYSHLY : Международный Aэропорт Аль-Камышлы ЭЛЬ-КАМЫШЛЫ (ru)  (Aeroport Al''-Kamyshly)
KANT BASE Leased KANT Air Base  (Kant Air Base)Local: Aviabaza KANT : Авиабаза КАНТ (ru)  (Aviabaza Kant)
KHMEIMIM Russian Leased Military Base of Latakia : KHMEIMIM Air Base  (Khmeimim)Local: Latakiya Voyennaya Baza - Латакия Военная База : Aviabaza HMEIMIM : Авиабаза ХМЕЫМИМ (ru)  (Hmeimim)
LOURDES SIGINT Lourdes Signals Intelligence Station : LOURDES SIGINT Station  (Lourdes Sigint)Local: Radioelektronnyy Tsentr v LURDESE : Радиоэлектронный Центр в ЛУРДЕСЕ (ru) + Estación SIGINT LOURDES (es)  (Sigint Lourdes)
NISH CENTER Russo-Serbian Humanitarian Center of NISH  (Nish)Local: Rossiysko-Serbskiy Gumanitarnyy Tsentr : RSGTS - Российско-Сербский Гуманитарный Центр : РСГЦ (ru) + Srpsko-Ruskog Humanitanog Centra : SRHC - Српско-Руског Хуманитаног Центра : CPXЦ (sr)  (Niš)
RUSSIAN WAR MEMORIALS Association for WAR MEMORIALS  (Moscow)Local: Assotsiatsiya Voyennykh Memorialov - AVM : Ассоциация военных мемориалов - ABM (ru)  (Moskva)
SHAYRAT Syro-Russian Airbase of AL-SHAYRAT  (Al-Shayrat)Local: Qaeidat ash-SHA''IRAT al-Jawwia : قاعدة الشعيرات الجوية (ar) + AL-SHAYRAT Voyennaya Baza : АЛЬ-ШАИРАТ Военная База (ru)  (Ash-Sha''irat)
SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов - SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)
TARTUS BASE Russian Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)Local: Punkt Material''no-Tekhnicheskogo Obespecheniya VMF Rossii v Sirii : TARTUS Bazy : Пункт Mатериально-Tехнического Oбеспечения ВМФ России в Сирии : ТАРТУС базы (ru)  (Tartus Bazy)
TIYAS TIYAS Military Airbase  (Tiyas)Local: Qaeidat at-TIYAS al-Jawiyat al-Askaria : قاعدة التياس الجوية العسكرية (ar)  (Tiyas)
TRANSCAUCASIA Military Base of the Group of Russian Forces in TRANSCAUCASIA  (Gyumri Base + Erebuni Airport)Local: Voyennaya Baza Gruppy Rossiyskikh Voysk v ZAKAVKAZ''YE : Военная База Группы Российских Войск в ЗАКАВКАЗЬЕ (ru)  (Baza Gyumri + Erebuni Aeroport)
VILEYKA BASE VILEYKA Naval Communication Centre of the Russian Navy  (Vileyka Naval Communication Centre)Local: VILEYKA Voyenno-Morskoy Flot : ВИЛЕЙКА Военно-Морской Флот (ru)  (Vileyka Voyenno-Morskoy Flot)


106 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  ((Buenos Aires))
ARCTIC ARCTIC Council  (Tromso)
ASIA Asia Cooperation Dialogue : ACD  (Islamabad)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Brussels + Singapore)
ASIA-PACIFIC Secretariat of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation : APEC  (Singapore)
ASIAN INFRASTRUCTURE BANK Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank : AIIB  (Beijing)
ASIAN STATES Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia : CICA  (Alma-Ata)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
BALTIC SEA Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission : HELCOM  (Helsinki)
BALTIC SEA STATES Secretariat of the Council of The Baltic Sea States : CBSS  (Stockholm)
BLACK SEA Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation : BSEC  (Istanbul)
BLACK SEA BANK Black Sea Trade and Development Bank : BSTDB  (Thessalonica)
BLACKSEAFOR Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group : BLACKSEAFOR  (Ankara)
BRICS Organization of Brazil Russia India China South Africa Group : BRICS  (Chelyabinsk)
BRICS PLUS BRICS PLUS Block  (Beijing)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
COLLECTIVE SECURITY Collective Security Treaty Organization : CSTO  (Moscow)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
DANUBE DANUBE Commission  (Budapest)
EAST ASIA Asean Plus Eight : East Asia Summit : EAS  (Bangkok)
EAST-WEST Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe : OSCE  (Vienna)
EURASIAN BANK Eurasian Development Bank : EDB  (Alma-Ata)
EURASIAN GROUP Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism : EAG  (Moscow)
EURASIAN PATENT Eurasian Patent Organization : EAPO  (Moscow)
EURASIAN UNION EURASIAN Economic Union : EAEU  (Moscow)
EURO-ATLANTIC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council : EAPC  (Sintra)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FINANCE Financial Stability Board : FSB  (Basle)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Summits  (Riyadh)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HUMANITARIAN LAW International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission : IHFFC  (Berne)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization : IMSO  (London)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION International Space Station : ISS  (Baikonur + Merritt Island)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
INTERSPUTNIK International Organization of Space Communications INTERSPUTNIK  (Moscow)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Masdar City)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Cadarache)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MISSILES Missile Technology Control Regime : MTCR  (Paris)
NATO-PEACE Partnership for Peace : PFP  (Brussels)
NATURE CONSERVATION International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK New Development Bank : NDB  (Shanghai)
NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization : NASCO  (Edinburgh)
NORTH PACIFIC North Pacific Marine Science Organization : PICES  (Victoria)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
NUCLEAR TEST BAN Provisional Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization : CTBTO  (Vienna)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PELINDABA TREATY African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ  (Pelindaba)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
ROMS International Romani Union : IRU  (Prague)
RUSSIA-AFRICA RUSSIA-AFRICA Summit and Economic Forum  (Sochi)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SHANGHAI GROUP Shanghai Cooperation Organization : SCO  (Beijing)
SLAVIALAND Organization of the Slavic Union : SLAVIALAND  (Helsinki)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNAOC United Nations Organization Alliance of Civilizations : UNAOC  (New York City)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT The WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies  (Vienna)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



* The emblems shown for the sub-territories may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

INDEPENDENT STATES Commonwealth of Independent States : CIS  (Minsk)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ISLAMIC CAUCASUS Islamic Province of CAUCASUS  (Caucasian Front)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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