- Zones:

RUSSIA  SOVIET UNION  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR
(Moscow) - (Moscow) - (Moscow)

BAIKAL Territory

Flag or logo since 1922-11-18
Emblem or Symbol

Mikhail Kalinin
(ruler of RUSSIA since 1924-01-21)

Joseph Stalin
(ruler of SOVIET UNION since 1922-04-03)
Capital:Chita - (Chita)
Official languages: Russian (ru) .


BAIKAL BAIKAL Territory  (Chita)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BAIKAL BAIKAL Territory  (Chita)Local: BAYKAL Kray  (Chita)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FREE KARELIA EAST KARELIAN Government in Exile  (Helsinki)
RUSSIA Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR  (Moscow)
SOVIET UNION Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR  (Moscow)
TUVA Soviet Protectorate of the TUVINIAN People''s Republic  (Kyzyl)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADYGHE-CHERKESS ADYGHE-CHERKESS Autonomous Oblast part of North Caucasus Krai  (Maykop)
AVARISTAN AVAR Traditional Area  (Khunzakh)
BASHKIRIA BASHKIR Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic  (Ufa)
BIROBIDZHAN BIROBIDZHAN National Region  (Birobidzhan)
BURYAT-MONGOLIA BURYAT-MONGOLIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Verkhneudinsk)
CHECHENIA CHECHEN Autonomous Oblast  (Grozny)
CHERKESSIA CHERKESS Autonomous Oblast  (Batalpashinskaya)
CHUVASHIA CHUVASH Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Cheboksary)
DAGHESTAN Autonomous DAGHESTAN Socialist Soviet Republic  (Makhachkala)
DOLGANO-NENETSIA Dolgano-Nenets National District : TAIMYR  (Dudinka)
EAST PRUSSIA Enclave of the Province of EAST PRUSSIA  (Koenigsberg in Prussia)
FAR EAST Far Eastern Territory of DALKRAY  (Vladivostok)
INGUSHETIA INGUSHETIAN Autonomous Oblast  (Nazran)
KABARDIA KABARDA Region  (Staraya Krepost)
KALMYKIA KALMYK Autonomous Oblast  (Elista)
KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA Province  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky)
KARACHAY KARACHAY Autonomous Oblast  (Mikoyan-Shakhar)
KARAFUTO KARAFUTO Prefecture : South Sakhalin  (Toyohara)
KARELIA KARELIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Petrozadovsk)
KHAKASSIA KHAKASSIAN National District  (Khakassk)
KOLYMA KOLYMA Region  (Nagayevo)
KOMI-PERMYAKIA KOMI-PERMYAK National District  (Kudymkar)
KOMI-ZYRIANIA KOMI-ZYRIAN Autonomous Oblast  (Syktyvkar)
KUIVAISI KUIVAISI National District  (Toksovo)
KUMYKIA KUMYK Traditional Area  (Khasavyurt)
KURIL ISLANDS Archipelago of KURIL ISLANDS  (Kunashir)
LAKISTAN LAK Okrug  (Kumukh)
LEZGHISTAN LEZGISTAN Traditional Area  (Akhty)
LOWER KOLYMA LOWER KOLYMA Region  (Srednekolymsk)
LOWER VOLGA LOWER VOLGA Territory  (Saratov)
MARI MARI Autonomous Oblast  (Yoshkar-Ola)
MORDVINIA MORDVINIAN Autonomous Oblast  (Saransk)
NENETSIA NENETS National District  ((Iskateley))
NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS Archipelago  (Great Lyakhovsky Island)
NEW ZEMBLA NEW ZEMBLA District  (Belushya Guba)
NIZHEGOROD NIZHEGOROD Territory : Lower Novgorod Territory  (Nizhni Novgorod)
NORTH OSSETIA NORTH OSSETIAN Autonomous Oblast  (Vladikavkaz)
NORTH SAKHALIN SAKHALIN District  (Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky)
NORTHERN NORTHERN Territory  (Archangelsk)
NORTHERN LAND Territory of the NORTHERN LAND  (Island of the October Revolution)
OIRAT OIRAT Autonomous Oblast  (Ulala)
PETSAMO PETSAMO Region  (Nickel)
PETSERI PETSERI County  (Petseri)
POSSIET Korean National District of POSSIET  (Novokievskoye)
SHAPSUG SHAPSUG National District  (Krasno-Alexandrovskoye)
SOCHI SOCHI District  (Sochi)
SOVIET ARCTIC Soviet Sector of ARCTIC Region  (Northbrook Island)
TATARIA TATAR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kazan)
URAL URAL Oblast  (Sverdlovsk)
VICTORIA ISLAND Territory of VICTORIA ISLAND  (Victoria Island)
VOLGA GERMANS VOLGA GERMAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Pokrovsk)
VOTYAKIA VOTYAK Autonomous Oblast  (Izhevsk)
VYBORG VYBORG Province  (Vyborg)
WRANGEL ISLAND Soviet Colony of WRANGEL ISLAND  (Ushakovskoye)
YAKUTIA YAKUT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yakutsk)
YANA YANA Region  (Batagay)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Martucci Dave, DMA (US). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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