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SYRIAN Arab Republic UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1972-01-01
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah as-SŪRIYYAH : الجمهورية العربية السورية (ar)
Emblem or Symbol

President Hafez Al-Assad
(ruler of SYRIA since 1971-02-22)
Capital:Damascus(Dimashq Ash-Sham)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


SYRIA Federated SYRIAN Arab Republic  (Damascus)

13 Mainland Divisions:

ALEPPO Governorate of ALEPPO  (Aleppo)Local: Muhafazat HALAB : مُحافظة حلب (ar)  (Halab)
DAMASCUS Governorate of DAMASCUS  ((Damascus) + Babbila)Local: Muhafazah DIMASHQ : مُحافظة دمشق‎ (ar)  ((Dimashq Ash-Sham) + Babbila)
DAMASCUS CITY Governorate of DAMASCUS CITY  (Damascus)Local: Muhafazat DIMASHQ : مُحافظة دمشق‎ (ar)  (Dimashq Ash-Sham)
DEIR EZ-ZOR Governorate of DEIR EZ-ZOR  (Deir Ez-Zor)Local: Muhafazat DAYR AZ-ZAWR : مُحافظة دير الزور (ar)  (Dayr Az-Zawr)
DERA Governorate of DERA  (Dera)Local: Muhafazah DARA''Â : مُحافظة درعا (ar)  (Dara''â)
HAMA Governorate of HAMA  (Hama)Local: Muhafazah HAMAH : مُحافظة حماه (ar)  (Hamah)
HASEKE Governorate of HASEKE  (Haseke)Local: Muhafazah AL-HASAKAH : محافظة الحسكة (ar)  (Al-Hasakah)
HOMS Governorate of HOMS  (Homs)Local: Muhafazah HIMS : مُحافظة حمص (ar)  (Hims)
IDLIB Governorate of IDLIB  (Idlib)Local: Muhafazah IDLIB : مُحافظة ادلب (ar)  (Idlib)
LATAKIA Governorate of LATAKIA  (Latakia)Local: Muhafazat AL-LADHIQIYYAH : مُحافظة اللاذقية (ar)  (Al-Ladhiqiyyah)
RAKKA Governorate of RAKKA  (Rakka)Local: Muhafazah AR-RAQQAH : مُحافظة الرقة‎ (ar)  (Ar-Raqqah)
SUWEIDA Governorate of SUWEIDA  (Suweida)Local: Muhafazah AS-SUWAYDĀ : مُحافظة السويداء (ar)  (As-Suwaydā)
TARTUS Governorate of TARTUS  (Tartus)Local: Muhafazah TARTUS : مُحافظة طرطوس (ar)  (Ţarţūs)

2 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

ARAB UNION Union of Arab Republics : Federation of ARAB Republics  (Tripoli + Cairo + Damascus) Guide Muammar Gaddafi
EGYPT AND SYRIA Union of EGYPT AND SYRIA  (Cairo + Damascus) President Anwar El-Sadat

2 Assisted Entities

ARAB PALESTINE Palestinian Popular Struggle Front : PPSF  (West Bank Area) Samir Ghosheh
LEBANON LEBANESE Republic  (Beirut-East) President Suleiman Franjieh

4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

BEKAA Syrian Occupied BEKAA Governorate  (Zahle)Local: Muhafazah AL-BIQA'' : محافظة البقاع (ar)  (Zahlah)
JAPANESE RED ARMY Japanese Red Army : JRA allied with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine  (Japanese Red Army + Beirut)Local: Nihon SEKIGUN : 日本赤軍 (ja)  (Nippon Sekigun + Bayrūt)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dara''â)
QUNEITRA UNDOF-United Nations Disengagement Observer Force in the Governorate of QUNEITRA  (Quneitra)Local: Muhafazah AL-QUNAYTIRAH'' : مُحافظة القنيطرة (ar)  (Al-Qunaytirah'')

44 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

ARAB LEAGUE League of Arab States : ARAB LEAGUE  (Cairo)
ARAB UNITY Council of Arab Economic Unity : CAEU  (Cairo)
ASIA-AFRICA Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee : AALCC  (New Delhi)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS Customs Cooperation Council : CCC  (Brussels)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (Manila)
GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development : GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR  (Washington-District of Columbia)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMCO Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization : IMCO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : INTELSAT  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Saint Cloud)
ISLAM Organization of the Islamic Conference : OIC  (Jedda)
ISLAMIC BANK Islamic Development Bank : IDB  (Jedda)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
NON-ALIGNED Non-Aligned Movement : NAM  (Jakarta + New York City)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne + Montreal)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TOURISM World Tourism Organization : WTOO  (Madrid)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)

4 Governments in Exile

COMMUNIST PALESTINE Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine : DFLP  (Damascus) Nayef Hawatmeh
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen) Ahmed Jibril
PATANI PATANI United Liberation Organization  (Damascus) Kabir Abdul Rahman
WESTERN ARMENIA Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia : ASALA  (Beirut) Hagop Hagopian

Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen)

Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)
SULEYMAN SHAH TOMB Enclave of the Territory of the Turk''s Tomb in Manbij District : TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH  (Tomb of Suleyman Shah)
TARTUS BASE Soviet Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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