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2012-AUG-20

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Support Front for the People of Syria : AL-NUSRA FRONT : Al-Qaeda in Syria : GREATER SYRIA (Al-Nusra Front)  Abu Mohammad al-Golani
Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT : ISLAMIC LEVANT ((Hama) + (Idlib))  Hassan Aboud
Syrian National Council : SNC : FREE SYRIA (Istanbul + Azaz)  Abdulbaset Sieda
SYRIAN Arab Republic : SYRIA (Damascus)  President Bashar Al-Assad

Alternate Entities with similar names

SYRIAN Arab Republic
(Damascus)

SYRIAN Arab Republic UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1980-03-29
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah as-SŪRIYYAH : الجمهورية العربية السورية (ar)
Emblem or Symbol

President Bashar Al-Assad
(ruler of SYRIA since 2000-07-17)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Damascus(Dimashq Ash-Sham)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


SYRIA SYRIAN Arab Republic  (Damascus)

13 Mainland Divisions:

ALEPPO Governorate of ALEPPO  (Aleppo)Local: Muhafazat HALAB : مُحافظة حلب (ar)  (Halab)
DAMASCUS CITY Governorate of DAMASCUS CITY  (Damascus)Local: Muhafazat DIMASHQ : مُحافظة دمشق‎ (ar)  (Dimashq Ash-Sham)
DAMASCUS COUNTRYSIDE Governorate of DAMASCUS COUNTRYSIDE  (Babbila)Local: Muhafazah RIF DIMASHQ : مُحافظة ريف دمشق (ar)  (Babbila)
DEIR EZ-ZOR Governorate of DEIR EZ-ZOR  (Deir Ez-Zor)Local: Muhafazat DAYR AZ-ZAWR : مُحافظة دير الزور (ar)  (Dayr Az-Zawr)
DERA Governorate of DERA  (Dera)Local: Muhafazah DARA''Â : مُحافظة درعا (ar)  (Dara''â)
HAMA Governorate of HAMA  (Hama)Local: Muhafazah HAMAH : مُحافظة حماه (ar)  (Hamah)
HASEKE Governorate of HASEKE  (Haseke)Local: Muhafazah AL-HASAKAH : محافظة الحسكة (ar)  (Al-Hasakah)
HOMS Governorate of HOMS  (Homs)Local: Muhafazah HIMS : مُحافظة حمص (ar)  (Hims)
IDLIB Governorate of IDLIB  (Idlib)Local: Muhafazah IDLIB : مُحافظة ادلب (ar)  (Idlib)
LATAKIA Governorate of LATAKIA  (Latakia)Local: Muhafazat AL-LADHIQIYYAH : مُحافظة اللاذقية (ar)  (Al-Ladhiqiyyah)
RAKKA Governorate of RAKKA  (Rakka)Local: Muhafazah AR-RAQQAH : مُحافظة الرقة‎ (ar)  (Ar-Raqqah)
SUWEIDA Governorate of SUWEIDA  (Suweida)Local: Muhafazah AS-SUWAYDĀ : مُحافظة السويداء (ar)  (As-Suwaydā)
TARTUS Governorate of TARTUS  (Tartus)Local: Muhafazah TARTUS : مُحافظة طرطوس (ar)  (Ţarţūs)



1 Assisted Entity

HEZBOLLAH Revolutionary Justice Organization : HEZBOLLAH  (Beirut-West + Bint Jbeil) Hassan Nasrallah



4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dara''â)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)Local: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE (en) + Force des Nations-Unies chargée d’Observer le Désengagement : ZONE FNUOD (fr) + UNDOF : أندوف (ar)  (Al-Qunaytirah'')
UNIFIL ZONE United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon : UNIFIL Zone in Southern Lebanon  (Naqura)Local: Force Intérimaire des Nations-Unies au Liban : FINUL (fr) + United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon : UNIFIL (en) + UNIFIL : قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان (ar)  (Naqoura)
ZABADANI ZABADANI District  (Zabadani)Local: Mintaqah AZ-ZABADANI : منطقة الزبداني (ar)  (Az-Zabadani)



55 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


ASIA-AFRICA Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization : AALCO  (New Delhi)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
AXIS OF RESISTANCE Resistance and Deterrence Axis : AXIS OF RESISTANCE  (Tehran)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (New York City)
GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development : GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR  (Washington-District of Columbia)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
INTERSPUTNIK International Organization of Space Communications INTERSPUTNIK  (Moscow)
ISESCO Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO  (Rabat)
ISLAMIC BANK Islamic Development Bank : IDB  (Jeddah)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MEDITERRANEAN Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean : PAM  (Saint Julian''s)
NON-ALIGNED Non-Aligned Movement : NAM  (Jakarta + New York City)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)



3 Governments in Exile

ISLAMIC PALESTINE Palestinian Islamic Jihad : PIJ Movement for an Islamic Palestinian State  (Tehran + Gaza) Sheikh Ramadan Shalah
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun) Ahmed Jibril
PATANI PATANI United Liberation Organization  (Damascus + Pulo) Abu Yasir Fikri




Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

FREE SYRIA Syrian National Council : SNC  (Istanbul + Azaz)
ISLAM BRIGADES Brigades of Islam : LIWA AL-ISLAM  (Al-Otaibah)
ISLAMIC LEVANT Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT  ((Hama) + (Idlib))
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun)
WESTERN KURDISTAN Kurdish Supreme Committee : SYRIAN KURDISTAN  (Ayn Al-Arab-Kobane)


Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AFRIN Kurdish Democratic Union Party Controlled Enclave of AFRIN District  (Afrin)
AHRAR AL-SHAMAL Ahrar Al-Shamal Brigade in AL-BAB District  (Al-Bab)
ATARIB Councils of the District of ATARIB  (Atarib)
AZAZ AZAZ District  (Azaz)
DARAYA DARAYA District  (Daraya)
GADOT GADOT Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Gadot)
GOLAN Israeli annexed GOLAN Sub-District  (Katzrin)
GREATER SYRIA Support Front for the People of Syria : AL-NUSRA FRONT : Al-Qaeda in Syria  (Al-Nusra Front)
HOULA PLAIN Syrian Turkmens of HOULA PLAIN Region : Taldou District  (Taldou)
ISLAMIC SHAM Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT : Ahrar Al-Sham  ((Hama) + (Idlib))
JASIM JASIM Sub-District  (Jasim)
JERABLUS JERABLUS District  (Jerablus)
JISR AL-SHUGHOUR JISR AL-SHUGHOUR District  (Jisr Al-Shughour)
KOBANE Ayn Al-Arab District : Syrian Kurdish Enclave of KOBANE  (Ayn Al-Arab-Kobane)
KUSEYR KUSEYR District  (Kuseyr)
MAARAT AL-NUMAAN MAARAT AL-NUMAAN District  (Maarat Al-Numaan)
MUHARDEH MUHARDEH District  (Muhardeh)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)
RASTAN Enclave of RASTAN District  (Rastan)
SANAMAIN SANAMAIN District  (Sanamain)
SENIR Israeli Occupied SENIR Demilitarized Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Senir)
SHEBAA FARMS SHEBAA FARMS Area  (Mugr Shebaa)
SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON District  ((Aleppo) + Mount Simeon Central)
SULEYMAN SHAH TOMB Enclave of the Territory of the Turk''s Tomb in Manbij District : TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH  (Tomb of Suleyman Shah)
SUSITA SUSITA Area  (Ein Gev)
TARTUS BASE Russian Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)
ZABADANI ZABADANI District  (Zabadani)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.