ISLAMIC SHAM (Babsaqa) Rebellion Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT : Ahrar Al-Sham : Abu Yahia al-Hamawi
GREATER SYRIA (Salqin) Rebellion Front of Defense for the People of Greater Syria : AL-NUSRA FRONT [Al-Qaeda in Syria] : Abu Mohammad al-Golani
ISLAMIC FRONT (Sarjeh) Rebellion ISLAMIC FRONT of Syria : Ahmed Abu Issa
FATAH (Idlib + Babsaqa) Rebellion Army of Conquest : FATAH Army Alliance : Abu Yahia al-Hamawi
ISLAMIC STATE (Rakka + Mosul) Rebellion Caliphate of the Islamic State : DAESH : Caliph Ibrahim Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
FREE SYRIA (Istanbul x + Azaz gRebellionExile SYRIAN Interim Government of the Syrian Arab Republic [National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces] : President Khaled Khoja
SYRIA (Damascus) UNO Member SYRIAN Arab Republic [Russian Military Assistance] : President Bashar Al-Assad

Other Entities with similar names

(Moscow a + Saint Petersburg d) - (Damascus) -

SYRIAN Arab Republic
[Russian Military Assistance]

Flag or logo since 1980-03-29*
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-´Arabiyyah as-SŪRIYYAH : الجمهورية العربية السورية (ar) UNO Member
Emblem or Symbol*

President Vladimir Putin
(ruler of RUSSIA since 2012-05-07)

President Bashar Al-Assad
(ruler of SYRIA since 2000-07-17)
Capitals & administrative places*: Damascus
(Dimashq Ash-Sham)
Official & national languages: Arabic (ar) .


SYRIA SYRIAN Arab Republic  (Damascus)

9 Divisions:

ALEPPO Governorate of ALEPPO  (Aleppo)Local: Muhafazat HALAB : مُحافظة حلب (ar)  (Halab)
DAMASCUS CITY Governorate of DAMASCUS CITY  (Damascus)Local: Muhafazat DIMASHQ : مُحافظة دمشق‎ (ar)  (Dimashq Ash-Sham)
DAMASCUS COUNTRYSIDE Governorate of DAMASCUS COUNTRYSIDE  (Babbila)Local: Muhafazah RIF DIMASHQ : مُحافظة ريف دمشق (ar)  (Babbila)
DERA Governorate of DERA  (Dail)Local: Muhafazah DARA´Â : مُحافظة درعا (ar)  (Da´il)
HAMAH Governorate of HAMAH  (Hamah)Local: Muhafazah HAMAH : مُحافظة حماه (ar)  (Hamah)
HOMS Governorate of HOMS  (Homs)Local: Muhafazah HIMS : مُحافظة حمص (ar)  (Hims)
LATAKIA Governorate of LATAKIA  (Latakia)Local: Muhafazat AL-LADHIQIYYAH : مُحافظة اللاذقية (ar)  (Al-Ladhiqiyyah)
SUWEIDA Governorate of SUWEIDA  (Suweida)Local: Muhafazah AS-SUWAYDĀ : مُحافظة السويداء (ar)  (As-Suwaydā)
TARTUS Governorate of TARTUS  (Tartus)Local: Muhafazah TARTUS : مُحافظة طرطوس (ar)  (Ţarţūs)

5 Condominiums:

DEIR EZ-ZOR Enclave of the Governorate of DEIR EZ-ZOR  (Deir Ez-Zor)Local: Muhafazat DAYR AZ-ZAWR : مُحافظة دير الزور (ar)  (Dayr Az-Zawr)
HASEKE Governorate of HASEKE [Enclaves]  (Kamishli-South)Local: Muhafazah AL-HASAKAH : محافظة الحسكة (ar)  (Qamishli Al-Janub)
IDLIB Enclave of the Governorate of IDLIB  (Fua)Local: Muhafazah IDLIB : مُحافظة ادلب (ar)  (Al-Fu´ah)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dara´â)
ZABADANI ZABADANI District  (Zabadani)Local: Mintaqah AZ-ZABADANI : منطقة الزبداني (ar)  (Az-Zabadani)

3 Governments or Movements in Exile

ISLAMIC PALESTINE Palestinian Islamic Jihad : PIJ Movement for an Islamic Palestinian State  (Beirut-West + Tehran + Gaza) Sheikh Ramadan Shalah
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun) Ahmed Jibril
PATANI PATANI United Liberation Organization  (Damascus + Pulo) Abu Yasir Fikri

Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

KHMEIMIM Russian Leased Military Base of Latakia : KHMEIMIM Air Base  (Khmeimim)Local: Latakiya Voyennaya Baza – Латакия Военная База : Aviabaza HMEIMIM : Авиабаза ХМЕЫМИМ (ru)  (Hmeimim)
TIYAS TIYAS Military Airbase  (Tiyas)Local: Qaeidat at-TIYAS al-Jawiyat al-Askaria : قاعدة التياس الجوية العسكرية (ar)  (Tiyas)

61 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

ASIA-AFRICA Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization : AALCO  (New Delhi)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
AXIS OF RESISTANCE Resistance and Deterrence Axis : AXIS OF RESISTANCE  (Tehran)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FIFA Federation of International Football Association : FIFA  (Zurich)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (New York City)
GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development : GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR  (Washington-District of Columbia)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
INTERSPUTNIK International Organization of Space Communications INTERSPUTNIK  (Moscow)
ISESCO Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO  (Rabat)
ISLAMIC BANK Islamic Development Bank : IDB  (Jeddah)
ISO International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
ITSO International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MEDITERRANEAN Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean : PAM  (Saint Julian´s)
NON-ALIGNED Non-Aligned Movement : NAM – Advancing South South Cooperation  (Tehran + New York City)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PEACE World Peace Council : WPC  (Athens)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
UN WOMEN United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women : UN WOMEN  (New York City)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children´s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research : UNIDIR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)

* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

EASTERN GHOUTA Military Council of Damascus and its Suburbs : EASTERN GHOUTA  (Al-Otaibah + Aleppo-East)
FATAH Army of Conquest : FATAH Army Alliance  (Idlib + Babsaqa)
FATAH ALEPPO Conquest of Aleppo : ALEPPO CONQUEST Coalition  (Aleppo-East)
FREE SYRIA SYRIAN Interim Government of the Syrian Arab Republic [National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces]  (Istanbul x + Azaz g)
GREATER SYRIA Front of Defense for the People of Greater Syria : AL-NUSRA FRONT [Al-Qaeda in Syria]  (Salqin)
ISLAMIC SHAM Islamic Movement of the Free Men of THE LEVANT : Ahrar Al-Sham  (Babsaqa)
ISLAMIC STATE Caliphate of the Islamic State : DAESH  (Rakka + Mosul)
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun)
SYRIAN TURKMENS SYRIAN TURKMEN Assembly-in-Exile  (Istanbul)
WESTERN KURDISTAN Interim Government of WESTERN KURDISTAN [People´s Council of Western Kurdistan]  (Kamishli)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AFRIN Autonomous Canton of AFRIN [Enclave under Occupation of the Syrian Kurdish People´s Protection Units]  (Afrin)
AL-KHAIR Islamic Province of AL-KHAIR  (Al-Bukamal)
ATARIB Syrian Revolutionnaries Front Controlled ATARIB District  (Atarib)
AZAZ AZAZ District  (Azaz)
DAMASCUS-SHAM Islamic Province of DAMASCUS : Sham Province  (Al-Sab Biyar)
DARAYA DARAYA District  (Daraya)
DEIR EZ-ZOR Enclave of the Governorate of DEIR EZ-ZOR  (Deir Ez-Zor)
DOUMA DOUMA District  (Douma)
EDLIB Enclaves of the Islamic Province of IDLIB  ((Idlib))
GADOT GADOT Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Gadot)
GOLAN GOLAN Sub-District [Israeli Annexion]  (Katzrin)
HALEB Islamic Province of ALEPPO  (Manbij)
HAMAH Islamic Province of HAMA  (Ukayribat)
HOMS Islamic Province of HOMS  (Palmyra)
HOULA PLAIN Syrian Turkmens of HOULA PLAIN Region [Taldou District]  (Taldou)
IDLEB Emirate of IDLIB  (Idlib)
JASIM JASIM Sub-District  (Jasim)
JAZEERAH Islamic Province of JAZEERAH  (Shaddadi)
JAZIRA JAZIRA Canton  (Kamishli)
KOBANE KOBANE Canton  (Kobane)
NORTH MOUNT SIMEON Army of Mujahedeens and Islamic Front Controlled NORTH MOUNT SIMEON District  (Darit Izza)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)
QUDSAYA QUDSAYA District  (Qudsaya)
RAKKA Enclave of the Islamic Province of RAKKA  (Rakka + Maadan)
RASTAN Enclave of RASTAN District  (Rastan)
SENIR Israeli Occupied SENIR Demilitarized Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Senir)
SHAM SHAM Legion : Homs Legion Alliance : Levant Legion  (Homs-North)
SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON District  ((Aleppo) + Mount Simeon Central)
SOUTHERN SYRIA SOUTHERN FRONT of the Free Syrian Army in Dera District  (Dera)
SULEYMAN SHAH TOMB Enclave of the Territory of the Turk´s Tomb in Manbij District : TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH  (Tomb of Suleyman Shah)
TARTUS BASE Russian Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)
TASIL Enclave of TASIL Sub-District  (Tasil)
Notes: aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   *, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.


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UPDATED ON: ~ 2023-APR-27 ~ .