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1994-FEB-03

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FRANCE  CHAD 
  
(Paris) - (Ndjamena) -

Republic of CHAD UNO Member

Flag or logo since 1959-11-06
Jumhūriyyat TSHĀD : جمهورية تشاد (ar) + République du TCHAD (fr)
Emblem or Symbol

President Francois Mitterrand
(ruler of FRANCE since 1981-05-21)

President Idriss Deby
(ruler of CHAD since 1990-12-02)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Ndjamena(N''Djamena)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


CHAD Republic of CHAD  (Ndjamena)

15 Mainland Divisions:

BATHA BATHA Prefecture  (Ati)Local: Préfecture du BATHA  (Ati)
BILTINE BILTINE Prefecture  (Biltine)Local: Préfecture de BILTINE  (Biltine)
BORKU-ENNEDI-TIBESTI BORKU-ENNEDI-TIBESTI Prefecture  (Faya-Largeau)Local: Préfecture du BORKOU-ENNEDI-TIBESTI (fr) + Aaholu BŪRKŪ INNĪDĪ TIBASTĪ : محافظة منطقة بوركو إنيدي (ar)  (Faya-Largeau)
EASTERN LOGONE EASTERN LOGONE Prefecture  (Doba)Local: Préfecture du LOGONE ORIENTAL (fr) + Muhafazah LŪQŪNI Š-ŠARQĪ : محافظة لوقون الشرقي (ar)  (Doba)
GUERA GUERA Prefecture  (Mongo)Local: Préfecture du GUÉRA  (Mongo)
KANEM KANEM Prefecture  (Mao)Local: Préfecture du KANEM  (Mao)
LAKE LAKE Prefecture  (Bol)Local: Préfecture du LAC  (Bol)
MAYO-KEBBI MAYO-KEBBI Prefecture  (Bongor)Local: Préfecture du MAYO-KEBBI  (Bongor)
MIDDLE SHARI MIDDLE SHARI Prefecture  (Sarh)Local: Préfecture du MOYEN-CHARI  (Sarh)
NDJAMENA NDJAMENA City Prefecture  (Ndjamena)Local: Préfecture de la Ville de N''DJAMENA (fr) + Madinat NIJĀMĪNĀ : مدينة نجامينا (ar)  (N''Djamena)
SALAMAT SALAMAT Prefecture  (Am Timan)Local: Préfecture du SALAMAT  (Am-Timan)
SHARI-BAGHIRMI SHARI-BAGHIRMI Prefecture  (Massenya)Local: Préfecture du CHARI-BAGUIRMI  (Massenya)
TANDJILE TANDJILE Prefecture  (Lai)Local: Préfecture de la TANDJILÉ  (Laï)
WADDAI WADDAI Prefecture  (Abeche)Local: Préfecture du OUADDAÏ (fr) + Muhafazah WADDĀY : محافظة من الواداي (ar)  (Abéché)
WESTERN LOGONE WESTERN LOGONE Prefecture  (Mundu)Local: Préfecture du LOGONE OCCIDENTAL (fr) + Muhafazah LŪQŪNI L-ĠARBĪ : محافظة مقاطعة لوقون (ar)  (Moundou)




1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Africa:

AOZOU STRIP AOZOU STRIP Territory  (Aozou)Local: Aradi QITA AWZU : أراضي قطاع أوزو (ar) + Territoire de la BANDE D''AOUZOU (fr)  (Aozou)



51 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Abidjan)
AFRICAN CARIBBEAN AND PACIFIC STATES African Caribbean and Pacific Group of States : ACP STATES  (Brussels)
AFRICAN NATURE African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources : CONVENTION ON CONSERVATION  (Algiers)
AFRICAN UNITY Organization of African Unity : OAU  (Addis Ababa)
AIPO African Intellectual Property Organization : AIPO  (Yaounde)
ASECNA Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar : ASECNA  (Dakar)
CENTRAL AFRICAN STATES Economic Community of Central African States : ECCAS  (Libreville)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FRANCOPHONE STATES Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation : ACCT  (Paris)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade : GATT  (Villa Bocage)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (New York City)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : INTELSAT  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
ISESCO Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO  (Rabat)
ISLAM Organization of the Islamic Conference : OIC  (Jedda)
ISLAMIC BANK Islamic Development Bank : IDB  (Jedda)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
LAKE CHAD BASIN Lake Chad Basin Commission : LCBC  (Ndjamena)
NON-ALIGNED Non-Aligned Movement : NAM  (Jakarta + New York City)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OHADA Organisation for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa : OHADA  (Port Louis)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
TOURISM World Tourism Organization : WTOO  (Madrid)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCHR United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : UNHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)




Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AOZOU STRIP AOZOU STRIP Territory  (Aozou)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.