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1900-JAN-01

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The Exalted Ottoman State : Turkish OTTOMAN Empire
(Constantinople)

The Exalted Ottoman State : Turkish OTTOMAN Empire De facto Independent

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
Devlet-i Âliye-i OSMÂNIYYE : دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه (ota)
Emblem or Symbol

Sultan Abdulhamit II Gazi the Sublime Khan
(ruler of OTTOMAN TURKEY since 1900-01-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Constantinople(Konstantiniyye)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


OTTOMAN TURKEY Sublime OTTOMAN State : Turkish Empire  (Constantinople)

8 Mainland Divisions:

ARABIAN IRAQ Region of Ottoman Iraq : Region of ARABIAN IRAQ  (Baghdad)Local: IRAK-ARABI Bölgesi : ایاالت-عربی منطقه (ota) + AL-IRAQ taht al-Hukm al-Uthmany : العراق تحت الحكم العثماني (ar) + IRAQ taht Hakwimt Uthmany : عراق تحت حکومت عثمانی (fa)  (Bağdat)
ARCHIPELAGO Vilayet of THE ARCHIPELAGO : Vilayet of the Islands of the White Sea  (Rhodes)Local: Vilâyet-i CEZAIR-I BAHR-I SEFID : ولايت جزائر بحر سفيد‎ (ota)  (Rodos)
ASIA MINOR Region of ASIA MINOR  (Cotyaeum)Local: KÜÇÜK ASYA Bölgesi : منطقه کوچک آسیا (ota)  (Kütahya)
HEJAZ Vilayet of the HEJAZ  (Mecca + Taif)Local: Vilâyet-i HICAZ : ولاية الحجاز (ota) + Wilayat AL-HIJAZ : ولاية الحجاز (ar)  (Mekke-i-Mükerreme + Taif)
OTTOMAN LEVANT Region of Ottoman Syria : OTTOMAN LEVANT  (Aleppo)Local: OSMANLI ŞAM Bölgesi : سورية في العصر العثماني (ota) + Suria al-Uthmania : SHAM AL-UTHMANIA - سوريا العثمانية (ar)  (Ḥaleb)
RUMELIA Ottoman Region of RUMELIA : European Turkey  (Constantinople)Local: RUMELIA Bölgesi : منطقه رومالیا (ota)  (Konstantiniyye)
SIX PROVINCES Six Armenian Provinces : SIX VILAYETS  (Van)Local: Vilâyat-ı Sitte : ALTI VILAYET - فيلايات-ı سيت (ota)  (Van)
YEMEN Vilayet of YEMEN  (Hodeidah)Local: Vilâyet-i YEMEN : ولايت یمن (ota) + Wilayat AL-YAMAN : ولاية اليمن (ar)  (Hudeyde)



14 Assisted Entities

BULGARIA Autonomous Principality of BULGARIA under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Sofia) Prince Ferdinand I
CRETE Cretan State : International Council of the Principality of CRETE under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Chania) King George I
CYPRUS British Protectorate of CYPRUS ISLAND : Sanjak of Cyprus under Ottoman Suzerainty part of Archipelago Vilayet  (Nicosia) Queen Victoria
DAR GIMIR DAR GIMIR Sultanate Dependency of Dar Masalit  (Qanatir) Sultan Idris bin Abi Bakr
DAR MASALIT DAR MASALIT Sultanate under Darfuri Suzerainty  (Jebeil) Sultan Abbakar bin Ismail
DARFUR Emirate of DARFUR : Sultanate of Dar Fur  (El Fasher) Sultan Ali Dinar bin Zakariya
EGYPT British Occupied Khediviate of EGYPT under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Cairo) Khedive Abbas II Hilmi Pasha
MOUNT ATHOS Autonomous State of THE HOLY MOUNTAIN OF ATHOS under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Karyes) Patriarch Constantine V
MURRA Emirate of MURRA Tribe in Yemeni Empty Quarter  (Al Murrah) Emir of Al Murrah
NAJRAN Muslim Principality of NAJRAN under Yemeni Suzerainty  (Aba As-Saud) Prince Abd Allah II bin Ali bin Husayn bin Ali
SAMOS Autonomous Principality of SAMOS under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Samos City) Prince Konstantinos Vagianis
SENUSSIA British Sphere of Influence of the Independent SENUSSI Sheikhdom of Cyrenaica  (Tayserbo) Sheikh Sidi Muhammad bin Sidi Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi
TRIPOLITANIA Vilayet of TRIPOLITANIA : Tripoli Regency under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Tripoli of Barbary) Hacim Bey
TUNISIA Autonomous Regency of TUNIS : French Protectorate of the Tunisian Regency  (Tunis) Ali III Muddat bin Al-Husayn Bey



2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN  (Khartoum)Local: Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN (en) + AL-SUDAN AL-MUSR YAL-ANGELAZY : السودان المصرى الإنجليزى (ar)  (Khartoum)
SINAI PENINSULA Egyptian Administration of SINAI PENINSULA  (Arish)Local: Mintaqah SINA : منطقة سيناء (ar) + Egyptian Administration of SINAI PENINSULA (en) + SINA Yarımadası : سيناء (ota)  (El Arish)

4 Territories in Asia:

DARDANELLES Autonomous Province of DARDANELLES : Mutesarifate of Bigha  (Hellespont)Local: Mutasarrifiyet-i BIĞA : موتاساريفيت-i بيغا (ota)  (Çanakkale)
JERUSALEM Autonomous Province of JERUSALEM : Mutesarifate of Kuds  (Jerusalem)Local: Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı - Mutasarrifiyet-i KUDÜS : متصرفية القدس الشريف‎ (ota) + Mütesarrifiyat AL-QUDS ash-Sharif : متصرفية القدس الشريف (ar)  (Kudüs)
MOUNT LEBANON Autonomous Province of MOUNT LEBANON : Mutesarifate of Mount Lebanon  (Baabda + Aley + Damour)Local: Mutasarrifiyet-i Cebel-i Lubnan - CEBEL-I LÜBNAN Mutasarrıflığı : متصاريفيت سيبيل-لبنان (ota) + Mütasarrifiyat JABAL LUBNAN : متصرفية جبل لبنان (ar)  (Baabda + Aley + Damour)
NICOMEDIA Mutesarifate of NICOMEDIA : Autonomous Province of Nicomedia  (Nicomedia)Local: Mutassarifiyet-i İZMID : متصرفية إزميد (ota)  (İzmid)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

KUWAIT Protectorate of the District of KUWAIT part of Bassorah Vilayet  (Kuwait)Local: Kazan-i KUVEYT : منطقة الكويت (ota) + Qada''a AL-KUWAYT : منطقة الكويت (ar) + District of KUWAIT (en)  (Kuveyt)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)

1 Territory in Europe:

CHATALJA Mutesarifate of CHATALJA : Autonomous Province of Chatalja  (Chatalja)Local: Mutassarifiyet-i Çatalca - ÇATALCA Mutasarrıflığı : متصرفية چاتالجا (ota)  (Çatalca)

4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

BOSNIA Austro-Hungarian administered Joint Imperial Territory of BOSNIA  (Sarajevo)Local: Kondominium BOSNIEN (de) + Társasházi BOSZNIA (hu) + Daire BOSNA : ديرة بوسنا (ota)  (Sarajevo)
HERZEGOVINA Austro-Hungarian Condominium of the Province of HERZEGOVINA  (Mostar)Local: Provinz HERZEGOWINA (de) + Tartomány HERCEGOVINA (hu) + HERSEK Il : هرسك (ota)  (Mostar)
NOVIPAZAR Austro-Hungarian Occupied Sanjak of NOVI PAZAR part of Kosovo Vilayet  (Novi Pazar)Local: Sandschak von NOVI PAZAR (de) + Sancağ-ı YENI PAZAR : سانجاك ينيبازار (ota)  (Novi Pazar)
THASOS Sanjak of THASOS  (Thasos)Local: Sancak-i TAŞOZ : سانجاك ثاسوس (ota) + Sanjak THASUS : سانجاك ثاسوس (ar)  (Taşoz)



6 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)




Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

ARTUIN ARTUIN District  (Artuin)
KARS KARS Oblast  (Kars)
SURMALU SURMALU Uyezd  (Igdir)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.