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1914-DEC-25

Zones: Timeline

Turkish Ottoman Empire : The Exalted OTTOMAN STATE
(Constantinople)

Turkish Ottoman Empire : The Exalted OTTOMAN STATE

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
Devlet-i Âliye-i OSMÂNIYYE : دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه (ota) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Sultan Mehmet V Reshat Gazi
(ruler of OTTOMAN TURKEY since 1909-04-27)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Constantinople
(Konstantiniyye)
Official & national languages: Ottoman Turkish (ota) .

Mainland:


OTTOMAN TURKEY TURKISH Empire  (Constantinople)

6 Divisions:

ARABIAN IRAQ Region of Ottoman Iraq : Region of ARABIAN IRAQ  (Baghdad)Local: IRAK-ARABI Bölgesi : ایاالت-عربی منطقه (ota) + AL-IRAQ taht al-Hukm al-Uthmany : العراق تحت الحكم العثماني (ar) + IRAQ taht Hakwimt Uthmany : عراق تحت حکومت عثمانی (fa)  (Bağdat)
ASIA MINOR Region of ASIA MINOR  (Cotyaeum)Local: KÜÇÜK ASYA Bölgesi : منطقه کوچک آسیا (ota)  (Kütahya)
HEJAZ Vilayet of the HEJAZ  (Taif a + Mecca y)Local: Vilâyet-i HICAZ : ولاية الحجاز (ota) + Wilayat AL-HIJAZ : ولاية الحجاز (ar)  (Taif + Mekke-i-Mükerreme)
OTTOMAN LEVANT Region of Ottoman Syria : OTTOMAN LEVANT  (Aleppo)Local: OSMANLI ŞAM Bölgesi : سورية في العصر العثماني (ota) + Suria al-Uthmania : SHAM AL-UTHMANIA - سوريا العثمانية (ar)  (Ḥaleb)
RUMELIA Ottoman Region of RUMELIA : European Turkey  (Constantinople)Local: RUMELIA Bölgesi : منطقه رومالیا (ota)  (Konstantiniyye)
SIX PROVINCES Six Armenian Provinces : SIX VILAYETS  (Van)Local: Vilâyat-ı Sitte : ALTI VILAYET - فيلايات-ı سيت (ota)  (Van)



11 Assisted Entities

DAR MASALIT DAR MASALIT Sultanate [under Darfuri Suzerainty]  (Jebeil) Sultan Bahr ad-Din Muhammad bin Abi Bakr
DARFUR Emirate of DARFUR : Sultanate of Dar Fur  (El Fasher) Sultan Ali Dinar bin Zakariya
JEBEL SHAMMAR Confederation of JEBEL SHAMMAR [under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Hail) Emir Saud II bin Abdul Aziz Al Rashid
JOWF Anizah Emirate of JOWF  (Jowf-Amir) Emir Anizah
KATAR Sheikhdom of KATAR  (Doha) Sheikh Abdullah bin Qasim Al Thani
KATHIRI KATHIRI Sultanate of Seiyun in Hadhramaut [under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Seiyun) Sultan Al-Mansur bin Ghalib Al-Kathiri
MURRA Emirate of MURRA [in Empty Quarter]  (Al Murrah) Emir of Al Murrah
NAJRAN Muslim Principality of NAJRAN [under Yemeni Suzerainty]  (Aba As-Saud) Prince Ali II bin Muhsin bin Husayn
NEJD Vilayet of NEJD [under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Riyadh) Emir Abdul Aziz bin Saud
TUNISIA Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Beylicate under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis) Muhammad V An-Nasir Bey
WASHM Ikhwan Principality of WASHM  (Al Artaweeiyah) Prince Faysal II Al-Dewish



12 Territories:

ADZHARIA Territory of ADZHARIA [Pro-Turkish rebellion]  (Kobuleti)Local: ACARA Toprakları (ota) + Teritoriaze ACHARIS : ტერიტორიაზე აჭარის (ka)  (Kobuleti)
ARDAGAN Ottoman Occupied District of ARDAGAN  (Ardagan)Local: ARDAHAN İlçesi (ota)  (Ardahan)
ARISH Urban Governorate of EL ARISH  (Arish)Local: KUZEY SINAI Bölgesi (ota)  (El Arish)
CHATALJA Mutesarifate of CHATALJA [Autonomous Province of Chatalja]  (Chatalja)Local: Mutassarifiyet-i Çatalca - ÇATALCA Mutasarrıflığı : متصرفية چاتالجا (ota)  (Çatalca)
DARDANELLES Mutesarifate of BIGHA [Autonomous Province of Dardanelles]  (Hellespont)Local: Mutasarrifiyet-i BIĞA : موتاساريفيت-i بيغا (ota)  (Çanakkale)
EASTERN AZARBAYJAN Ottoman Territory of EASTERN AZARBAYJAN  (Tabriz)Local: DOĞU AZERBAYCAN  (Tebriz)
IZMIDT Mutesarifate of IZMIDT [Autonomous Province of Khodjaeli]  (Izmidt)Local: Mutassarifiyet-i İZMID : متصرفية إزميد (ota)  (İzmid)
JERUSALEM Mutesarifate of KUDS [Autonomous Province of Jerusalem]  (Jerusalem)Local: Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı - Mutasarrifiyet-i KUDÜS : متصرفية القدس الشريف‎ (ota) + Mütesarrifiyat AL-QUDS ash-Sharif : متصرفية القدس الشريف (ar)  (Kudüs)
KAGHIZMAN Ottoman Occupied SARIKAMISH District  (Sarikamish)Local: Kazan-i KAĞIZMAN : قاغزمان‎ (ota)  (Sarıkamış)
MAKU Khanate of MAKU  (Maku)Local: MAKU Hanlığı : خانات ماکو (ota) + Khan-e MĀKŪ : خانات ماکو (fa)  (Maku)
MOUNT LEBANON Mutesarifate of MOUNT LEBANON [Autonomous Province of Mount Lebanon]  (Baabda + Aley)Local: Mutasarrifiyet-i Cebel-i Lubnan - CEBEL-I LÜBNAN Mutasarrıflığı : متصاريفيت سيبيل-لبنان (ota) + Mütasarrifiyat JABAL LUBNAN : متصرفية جبل لبنان (ar)  (Baabda + Aley)
YEMEN Vilayet of YEMEN  (Hodeidah)Local: Vilâyet-i YEMEN : ولايت یمن (ota) + Wilayat AL-YAMAN : ولاية اليمن (ar)  (El-Hudeyde)

2 Condominiums:

SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID´IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
WAILA AND YAM Territory of WAILA AND YAM Arabian Tribes  (Marwan + Aqaba Rifida)Local: Qabayil WAILA WA YAM : قبائل ويلا ويام (ar) + Kabileleri WAILA VE YAM : قبائل ويلا ويام (ota) + WAILA AND YAM Tribes (en)  (Marwan + Aqaba Rifida)



1 Government or Movement in Exile

TRIPOLITANIA-IN-EXILE Vilayet of TRIPOLITANIA in Exile  (Tunis) Neshet Bey



Military entity abroad, special or locally shared:

RAYAK German-Ottoman Air Base of RAYAK  (Rayak)Local: RAYAK Luftstützpunkt (de) + RAYAK Hava Üssü (ota)  (Rayak)


12 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
CENTRAL POWERS Triple Association of the CENTRAL POWERS  (Berlin)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Christiania)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ARTUIN ARTUIN Uyezd  (Artuin)
IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS Greek Administration of IMBROS AND TENEDOS ISLANDS  (Panagia Palomeni + Tenedos)
IMBROS LEMNOS AND CHIOS ISLANDS British Allied Occupied IMBROS LEMNOS AND CHIOS ISLANDS  (Imbros)
KARS KARS Oblast  (Kars)
SURMALU SURMALU Uyezd  (Igdir)
WESTERN ARMENIA Russian Occupied Territories of WESTERN ARMENIA  (Bayezit)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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