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1944-SEP-03

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BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations : British Empire
(London + Westminster)

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations : British Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations (en) SDN Observer
Emblem or Symbol*

King George VI
(ruler of UNITED KINGDOM since 1936-12-11)
Capital:London + Westminster - (London + Westminster)
Official languages: English (en) .

Mainland:


UNITED KINGDOM BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations  (London + Westminster)


8 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

AUSTRALIA Commonwealth of AUSTRALIA  (Canberra) King George VI
CANADA Dominion of CANADA  (Ottawa) King George VI
EIRE Dominion of Ireland : IRISH Free State  (Dublin) President Douglas Hyde
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London) King George VI
INDIA British Raj of INDIAN Empire  (New Delhi + Simla) Viceroy Archibald Wavell
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas) King George VI
NEW ZEALAND British Dominion of NEW ZEALAND  (Wellington) King George VI
SOUTH AFRICA Union of SOUTH AFRICA  (Pretoria + Cape Town) King George VI


25 Assisted Entities

BELGIUM Allied Occupied Territory of Belgium : BELGIAN Government  (Brussels) PM Hubert Pierlot
BHUTAN Kingdom of BHUTAN [Autonomous British Indian Protectorate]  (Paro + Punakha + Thimbu) King Jigme Wangchuk
CENTRAL INDIA CENTRAL INDIA Agency [Princely States under British Indian Suzerainty]  (Indore) Viceroy Archibald Wavell
COMMUNIST BURMA Communist Party of BURMA [in the Anti-Fascist Organisation]  (Pegu) Thakin Thein Pe Myint
EGYPT Kingdom of EGYPT  (Cairo) King Farouk I
ETHIOPIA Imperial State of ETHIOPIA  (Addis Ababa) Emperor Ras Tafari Haile Selassie I
FREE GREECE Konitsa Republic : Political Committee of National Liberation in Liberated Areas of Greece : MOUNTAIN Government  (Konitsa) Georgios Siantos
FRIENDLY ISLANDS Kingdom of TONGA : British Protected State of the Friendly Islands  (Nukualofa) Queen Charlotte Tupou III
GWALIOR GWALIOR Residency  (The Residency of Gwalior) Maharajah Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia
HYDEBABAD British Protectorate of the Princely State of Hyderabad and Berar : HYDERABAD Residency  (Hyderabad) Nizam Fath Jang Mir Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII
IRAN Imperial Kingdom of IRAN [British-Soviet Occupation]  (Tehran) Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
IRAQ IRAQI Kingdom [British Occupation]  (Baghdad) King Faysal II
ITALY Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in the Kingdom of ITALY  (Rome) King Victor Emmanuel III
JAMMU AND KASHMIR Princely State of JAMMU AND KASHMIR [British Indian Protectorate]  (Jammu + Srinagar) Maharajah Sir Hari Singh
LEBANON LEBANESE Republic  (Beirut) President Bechara El-Khoury
MALAYA Communist Party of Malaya : Malayan Peoples'' Anti-Japanese Army : MPAJA  (Mpaja Guerilla) SG Lai Teck
MYSORE Kingdom of MYSORE [British Residency]  (Bangalore) Maharajah Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar
PALESTINE League of Nations British Mandate for PALESTINE  (Jerusalem) King George VI
PERSIAN GULF STATES PERSIAN GULF Residency  (Bushire) Viceroy Archibald Wavell
RAJPUTANA RAJPUTANA Agency  (Mount Abu) Viceroy Archibald Wavell
SIKKIM Autonomous Kingdom of SIKKIM [British Protectorate]  (Gangtok) Maharajah Sir Tashi Namgyal
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET  (Lhasa) Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso
TRANSJORDAN TRANSJORDAN Emirate [League of Nations Mandate under British Protectorate]  (Amman) Emir Abdallah I
TUNISIA Protectorate of TUNISIA [French Administration of the Anglo-American Occupation]  (Tunis) Muhammad VIII Al-Amin Bey
ZANZIBAR Sultanate of ZANZIBAR [British Protectorate]  (Zanzibar Stone Town) Sultan Sidi Khalifa II bin Kharub



41 Territories:

ADEN BRITISH ADEN Colony and Protectorates  (Aden)Local: BRITISH ADEN Colony and Protectorates (en)  (Aden)
BAHAMAS British Crown Colony of THE BAHAMAS  (Nassau)Local: British Crown Colony of THE BAHAMAS (en)  (Nassau)
BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND High Commission for Basutoland the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland : BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND  (Maseru)Local: High Commission for Basutoland the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland : BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND (en)  (Maseru)
BERMUDA ISLANDS Crown Colony of THE BERMUDA ISLANDS : Crown Colony of The Somers Isles  (Hamilton)Local: Crown Colony of THE BERMUDA ISLANDS : Crown Colony of The Somers Isles (en)  (Hamilton)
BRITISH HONDURAS Crown Colony of BRITISH HONDURAS  (Belize City)Local: Crown Colony of BRITISH HONDURAS (en)  (Belize City)
BRITISH SOMALILAND Military Governorate of BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate  (Hargeisa)Local: BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate (en)  (Hargeisa)
BRITISH WEST INDIES BRITISH WEST INDIES Territories  (Port-of-Spain)Local: BRITISH WEST INDIES Territories (en)  (Port-of-Spain)
CEYLON British Crown Colony of CEYLON  (Colombo)Local: British Crown Colony of CEYLON (en)  (Colombo)
CYPRUS Crown Colony of CYPRUS  (Nicosia)Local: Crown Colony of CYPRUS (en)  (Nicosia)
CYRENAICA British Protectorate of CYRENAICA  (Benghazi)Local: British Protectorate of CYRENAICA (en) + Mahmaah-i Bratanih al-BARIQAH : محمية بريطانية من برقة (ar)  (Benghazi)
CYTHERA British Occupied CYTHERA Islands  (Cythera)Local: CYTHERA Islands (en) + Nisí KYTHERA : Νησί ΚΥΘΕΡΑ (el)  (Cythera)
ELEMI British Occupied ELEMI Area  (Liwan)Local: British Occupied ELEMI Area (en)  (Liwan)
ERITREA British Military Administration of ERITREA [British Protectorate]  (Asmara)Local: British Military Administration of ERITREA (en)  (Asmara)
FAEROE ISLANDS British Occupied FAEROE ISLANDS County  (Thorshavn)Local: FAEROE ISLANDS County (en) + FÆRØERNE Amt (da)  (Thorshavn)
FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES British Crown Colony of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Stanley)Local: British Crown Colony of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Stanley)
GAMBIA GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate  (Bathurst)Local: GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Bathurst)
GIBRALTAR British Crown Colony of GIBRALTAR  (Gibraltar)Local: British Crown Colony of GIBRALTAR (en)  (Gibraltar)
GOLD COAST British GOLD COAST Colony  (Accra)Local: British GOLD COAST Colony (en)  (Accra)
HABBANIYA British Sovereign Base of the Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA  (Habbaniya)Local: Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA (en)  (Habbaniya)
ITALIAN SOMALILAND British Administration of Occupied ITALIAN SOMALILAND  (Mogadishu)Local: British Administration of Occupied ITALIAN SOMALILAND (en) + SOMALIA ITALIANA Occupato (it)  (Mogadishu)
JAMAICA British Colony of JAMAICA  (Kingston)Local: British Colony of JAMAICA (en)  (Kingston)
KASTELLORIZO British Occupied KASTELLORIZO Island  (Kastellorizo)Local: KASTELLORIZO Island (en)  (Kastellorizo)
KENYA Colony and Protectorate of KENYA  (Nairobi)Local: Colony of Kenya and Protectorate of KENYA (en)  (Nairobi)
MACDONALD AND HEARD ISLANDS British Claimed Territory of MACDONALD AND HEARD ISLANDS  ((London))Local: Territory of MACDONALD AND HEARD ISLANDS (en)  ((London))
MALTA British Crown Colony of MALTA  (Valletta)Local: British Crown Colony of MALTA (en)  (Valletta)
MAURITIUS British Colony of MAURITIUS  (Port Louis)Local: British Colony of MAURITIUS (en)  (Port Louis)
MIDDLE EAST British Territory in THE MIDDLE EAST  (Cairo)Local: British Territory in THE MIDDLE EAST (en)  (Al-Qahirah)
NEWFOUNDLAND Crown Colony of NEWFOUNDLAND  (Saint John''s)Local: Crown Colony of NEWFOUNDLAND (en)  (Saint John''s)
NIGERIA Colony and Protectorate of NIGERIA  (Lagos)Local: Colony and Protectorate of NIGERIA (en)  (Lagos)
NORTHERN RHODESIA British Protectorate of NORTHERN RHODESIA  (Lusaka)Local: British Protectorate of NORTHERN RHODESIA (en)  (Lusaka)
NYASALAND NYASALAND Protectorate  (Zomba)Local: NYASALAND Protectorate (en)  (Zomba)
PRINCE EDWARD AND MARION ISLANDS PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS Group  (Marion)Local: PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS Group (en)  (Marion)
SAINT HELENA ISLANDS British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA  (Jamestown)Local: British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA (en)  (Jamestown)
SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Victoria)Local: British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLE ISLAND AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Victoria)
SIERRA LEONE SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate  (Freetown)Local: SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Freetown)
SIMONSTOWN British Naval Base of SIMON''S TOWN  (Simon''s Town)Local: Naval Base SIMON''S TOWN (en)  (Simon''s Town)
SOUTHERN RHODESIA British Colony of SOUTHERN RHODESIA  (Salisbury)Local: British Colony of SOUTHERN RHODESIA (en)  (Salisbury)
TRIPOLITANIA British Protectorate of TRIPOLITANIA  (Tripoli)Local: British Protectorate of TRIPOLITANIA (en) + Mahmaahi Bratanih man TARĀBULUS : محمية بريطانية من طرابلس (ar)  (Tripoli)
UGANDA UGANDA Colony  (Entebbe)Local: UGANDA Colony (en)  (Entebbe)
WEST ISLAND AND DIRECTION ISLAND Allied Military Administration of WEST ISLAND AND DIRECTION ISLAND  (Bantam Village on West Island)Local: Allied Military Administration of WEST ISLAND AND DIRECTION ISLAND (en)  (Bantam Village on West Island)
WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS British Military Administration of the WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS  (Suva)Local: British Military Administration of the WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS (en)  (Suva)

38 Condominiums:

AITUTAKI New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI  (Arutanga)Local: New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI (en)  (Arutanga)
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN  (Khartoum)Local: Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN (en) + AL-SUDAN AL-MUSR YAL-ANGELAZY : السودان المصرى الإنجليزى (ar)  (Khartoum)
ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS Disputed Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS  (King George)Local: Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS (en) + Sector del ANTÁRTICA Y LAS ISLAS DEL ATLÁNTICO SUR (es)  (King George)
BRITISH CAMEROONS League of Nations Mandate of BRITISH CAMEROONS administered from Nigeria  (Buea)Local: League of Nations Mandate of BRITISH CAMEROONS (en)  (Buea)
BRITISH TOGOLAND Administration of BRITISH TOGOLAND [League of Nations Mandate administered from Gold Coast]  (Ho)Local: Administration of BRITISH TOGOLAND (en)  (Ho)
CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS  (Canton Island)Local: Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS (en)  (Canton Island)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
COASTAL KENYA Coastal Domains of Zanzibar : KENYA Protectorate  (Mombasa)Local: KENYA Protectorate (en)  (Mombasa)
ELEMI TRIANGLE Kenyan Administration of Sudanese ELEMI TRIANGLE Zone  (Elemi)Local: ELEMI TRIANGLE Zone (en) + Eradi ILEMI : أراضي يليمي (ar)  (Ilemi)
ELLICE ISLANDS ELLICE ISLANDS District  (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti)Local: ELLICE ISLANDS District (en)  (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti)
FANNING ISLAND Allied Occupied FANNING ISLAND  (English Harbour)Local: Allied Occupied FANNING ISLAND (en)  (English Harbour)
FRENCH LEVANT Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : FRENCH LEVANT  ((Beirut))Local: Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban : LEVANT FRANÇAIS (fr) + Residency for Lebanon and Syria : FRENCH LEVANT (en)  ((Beyrouth))
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
GEORGES BANK GEORGES BANK Area  (-)Local: GEORGES BANK Area (en)  (-)
JAN MAYEN Station of JAN MAYEN  (Jan Mayen)Local: Stasjon JAN MAYEN (nb) + JAN MAYEN Stasjon (nn) + JAN MAYEN Station (en)  (Jan Mayen)
KUWAITI-SAUDI NEUTRAL ZONE KUWAITI-SAUDI NEUTRAL ZONE Area  (Khafji)Local: KUWAITI-SAUDI ARABIAN NEUTRAL ZONE Area (en) + KUWAYTI-SAUDI Al-Mintaqah Mahaadh : المنطقة المحايدة بين الكويت والسعودية (ar)  (Al-Khafji)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of FRENCH MADAGASCAR  (Tananarive)Local: Gouvernorat-général de MADAGASCAR FRANÇAISE (fr) + General Governorate of FRENCH MADAGASCAR (en)  (Tananarive)
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Allied Forces in the Government-General of the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Allied Protectorate]  (Willemstad)Local: All Forces Aruba-Curaçao Area : CAFAC (en) + Gebiedsdeel van NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN (nl)  (Willemstad)
NEUTRAL TERRITORY Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)Local: Colonie française de NOUVELLE-CALÉDONIE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Nouméa)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
NORMANDY Canadian Forces in NORMANDY  (Caen)Local: Forces canadiennes en NORMANDIE (fr) + Canadian Forces in NORMANDY (en)  (Caen)
NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA United States Military Occupied NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA  (Madang)Local: United States Military Occupied NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA (en)  (Madang)
NORTHERN FRANCE Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE  (Paris)Local: Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE (en) + Gouvernement Militaire Allié des Territoires Occupés en FRANCE (fr)  (Paris)
OTTAWA CIVIC HOSPITAL Extraterritorial Zone of OTTAWA CIVIC HOSPITAL  (Ottawa)Local: Extraterritorial Zone of OTTAWA CIVIC HOSPITAL (en)  (Ottawa)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PICARDY British Occupation Zone in PICARDY  (Beauvais)Local: British Occupation Zone in PICARDY (en) + Zone d''occupation britannique en PICARDIE (fr)  (Beauvais)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
RUANDA-URUNDI League of Nations Mandate of RUANDA-URUNDI Province of Belgian Congo  (Usumbura)Local: Mandat de la Société des Nations du RUANDA-URUNDI (fr) + Belgisch Mandaatgebied van ROEANDA-OEROENDI (nl)  (Usumbura)
SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE Co-Administration of SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE  ((Uqayr))Local: Co-Administration of SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE (en) + HUDUD SAUDI-IRAQI : المنطقة المحايدة السعودية العراقية (ar)  ((Uqair))
SOUTH EASTERN PAPUA SOUTH EASTERN Division  (Alotau)Local: SOUTH EASTERN Division (en)  (Alotau)
SOUTH WEST AFRICA Mandate of SOUTH WEST AFRICA [League of Nations Mandate under South African administration]  (Windhoek)Local: Mandaat van SUIDWES-AFRIKA (af) + Mandate of SOUTH WEST AFRICA (en) + Mandaatgebied van ZUIDWEST-AFRIKA (nl) + Mandatsgebiet SÜDWESTAFRIKA (de)  (Windhoek)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE SUEZ CANAL ZONE under British Protection [Suez Canal Company]  (Port Suez)Local: Suez Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie du Canal de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr) + Muhafazah QANAT AS-SUWAIS : محافظة قناة السويس (ar)  (Port Suez)
SURINAM Colony of SURINAM [Colony of Dutch Guiana administered by the Dutch Government in Exile]  (Paramaribo)Local: Kolonie SURINAME (nl)  (Paramaribo)
TANGANYIKA League of Nations Mandate of TANGANYIKA Territory  (Daressalam)Local: TANGANYIKA Territory (en)  (Daressalam)
VIS VIS Island  (Vis)Local: Ostrvo VIS : Острво ВИС (sh) + VIS Island (en)  (Vis)
WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))Local: Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND (en) + Sector en la TIERRA DE ELLSWORTH OCCIDENTAL (es)  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))
WESTERN SAMOA New Zealand Administration of the League of Nations Mandate on WESTERN SAMOA  (Apia)Local: League of Nations Mandate on WESTERN SAMOA (en) + Teritori o SAMOA I SISIFO (sm)  (Apia)

Dependent Protectorates:

ADI KAIEH ADI KAIEH Residency  (Adi Kaieh)Local: ADI CAIEH Residency (en)  (Adi Qayeh)
ADI UGRI ADI UGRI Residency  (Adi Ugri)Local: ADI UGRI Residency (en)  (Adi Ugri)
AFGOY AFGOY Residency  (Wanla Weyn)Local: AFGOY Residency (en) + Residenza di AFGOI (it)  (Wanla Weyn)
AFMADU AFMADU Residency  (Afmadu)Local: Residenza di AFMADÙ (it)  (Afmadu)
AGORDAT AGORDAT Residency  (Agordat)Local: AGORDAT Residency (it)  (Agordat)
AKYEM ABUAKWA British Protectorate of the Akan State of AKYEM ABUAKWA  (Abuakwa)Local: British Protectorate of the Akan State of AKYEM ABUAKWA  (Abuakwa)
ALAWI British Protectorate of ALAWI Sheikhdom of Al Kasha  (Al Sawda Kasha)Local: ALAWI Sheikhdom of Al Kasha (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`ALAWIYYA : مشيخة العلوي (ar)  (Al Sawda Kasha)
ALULA ALULA Residency  (Alula)Local: ALULA Residency (en) + Residenza di ALULA (it)  (Alula)
ANKOLE British Protectorate of ANKOLE Kingdom  (Mbarara)Local: Kingdom of ANKOLE (en) + Omugabe bwa ANKOLE (nyn)  (Mbarara)
AQRABI British Protectorate of AQRABI Sheikhdom of Bir Ahmad  (Bir Ahmad)Local: AQRABI Sheikhdom of Bir Ahmad (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`AQRABIYYA : مشيخة عقربي (ar)  (Bir Ahmad)
ASHANTI British Protectorate of ASANTEMAN Confederation  (Kumasi)Local: ASANTEMAN Confederation (en) + ASANTE Aman (tw)  (Kumasi)
ASMARA ASMARA Residency  (Asmara)Local: ASMARA Residency (en)  (Asmara)
ASSABA ASSABA Residency  (Assaba)Local: ASSABA Residency (en)  (Assaba)
AUDEGLE AUDEGLE Residency  (Audegle)Local: AUDEGLE Residency  (Audegle)
AWDHALI British Protectorate of AWDHALI Sultanate of Zara  (Zara)Local: AWDHALI Sultanate of Zara (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWDHALIYYA : سلطنة العوذلي (ar)  (Zarah)
BA KAZIM Sheikhdoms of BA KAZIM Vassal State of Lower Awlaki  (Majalah)Local: Sheikhdoms of BA KAZIM (en) + Mushykhat BA KAZIM : المشيخات با كاظم (ar)  (Al-Ma''jalah)
BAIDOA BAIDOA Residency  (Isha Baidoa)Local: Residency of BAIDOA  (Isha Baidoa)
BALAD BALAD Residency  (Balad)Local: Residency of BALAD (en) + Residenza di BALÀD (it)  (Balad)
BARDERA BARDERA Residency  (Bardera)Local: Residency of BARDERA (en) + Residenza di BARDERA (it)  (Bardera)
BARENTU BARENTU Residency  (Barentu)Local: BARENTU Residency (en)  (Barentu)
BAROTSELAND British Protectorate of BAROTSELAND  (Mongu)Local: British Protectorate of BAROTSELAND (en) + Mbumu wa Litunga ROZI (loz)  (Mongu)
BASUTOLAND Colony of BASUTOLAND : British Residency Commission for Basutoland  (Maseru)Local: Colony of BASUTOLAND : British Residency Commission for Basutoland (en)  (Maseru)
BECHUANALAND British Protectorate of BECHUANALAND  ((Mafeking))Local: BECHUANALAND Protectorate (en)  ((Mafeking))
BEIHAN British Protectorate of the Hashemite Emirate of BEIHAN  (Suq Abdulla)Local: Imarat BAYHAN : إمارة بيحان (ar) + Emirate of BEIHAN (en)  (Suq Abdulla)
BELEDWEYN BELEDWEYN Residency  (Beledweyn)Local: Residency of BELETWEYNE  (Beletweyne)
BENDER KASSIM BENDER KASSIM Residency  (Bender Kassim)Local: BENDER KASSIM Residency  (Bender Kassim)
BRAVA BRAVA Residency  (Brava)Local: BRAVA Residency (en) + Residenza di BRAVA (it)  (Brava)
BRITISH IRAN British Protectorate of IRAN  (Sanandaj)Local: British Protectorate of IRAN (en)  (Sanandaj)
BRITISH SIERRA LEONE SIERRA LEONE Protectorate  ((Freetown))Local: SIERRA LEONE Protectorate (en)  ((Freetown))
BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS Protectorate  (Tulagi)Local: BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS Protectorate (en)  (Tulagi)
BUGANDA Kingdom of BUGANDA [British Protectorate]  (Mengo)Local: Kingdom of BUGANDA (en) + Obwakabaka bwa BUGANDA (lg)  (Mengo)
BULOBARDE BULOBARDE Residency  (Bulobarde)Local: Residency of BULOBARDE  (Buulo Berde)
BUNYORO-KITARA Kingdom of BUNYORO-KITARA [British Protectorate]  (Hoima)Local: Kingdom of BUNYORO-KITARA (en) + Okumaka bwa BUNYORO-KITARA (nyo)  (Hoima)
BURHAKABA BURHAKABA Residency  (Burhakaba)Local: Residency of BURHAKABA  (Burhakaba)
CANDALA CANDALA Residency  (Candala)Local: CANDALA Residency  (Candala)
DAGOMBA British Protectorate of the DAGOMBA State : Kingdom of Dagbon  (Yendi)Local: Kingdom of DAGBONG (en) + Yan'' Naa DAGBONG (dag)  (Yendi)
DANTE DANTE Residency  (Dante)Local: DANTE Residency (en)  (Dante)
DECAMERE DECAMERE Residency  (Decamere)Local: DECAMERE Residenty (en)  (Decamere)
DHALIA Emirate of DHALA [British Protectorate]  (Dhala)Local: Imārat Aḍ-ḌĀLI'' : إمارة الضالع (ar) + Emirate of DHALA (en)  (Dhala)
DINSOR DINSOR Residency  (Dinsor)Local: Residency of DINSOR  (Dinsor)
DUSA MARREB DUSA MARREB Residency  (Dusa Marreb)Local: DUSA MARREB Residency  (Dusa Marreb)
EASTERN ADEN States of EASTERN ADEN Protectorates  (Mukalla)Local: EASTERN ADEN Protectorates (en) + Maḥmiyyat ʿADAN ASH-SHARQ : محمية عدن المحميات (ar)  (Al-Mukalla)
ELBUR EL BUR Residency  (Elbur)Local: EL BUR Residency  (Elbur)
ELDHER ELDHER Residency  (Eldher)Local: Residency of ELDHER  (Eldher)
EYL EYL Residency  (Eyl)Local: EYL Residency  (Eyl)
FADHLI British Protectorate of FADHLI Sultanate of Zinjibar  (Shukra)Local: Al-Saltana AL-FADLIYYA : السلطنة الفضلية (ar) + FADHLI Sultanate (en)  (Shuqrah)
GALKAYO GALKAYO Residency  (Galkayo)Local: Residency of GALCAIO (it)  (Galcaio)
GAROWE GAROWE Residency  (Garowe)Local: GAROWE Residency  (Garowe)
GELIB GELIB Residency  (Jilib)Local: Residenza di GELIB  (Gelib)
HAURA British Protectorate of the Dhiebi Sheikhdom of HAURA  (Haura)Local: Dhiebi Sheikhdom of HAWRA (en) + Mashyakhat AL-HAWRA'' : المشيخة من الحوراء (ar)  (Hawra)
IRQA British Protectorate of the Dhiebi Sheikhdom of IRQA  (Irqa)Local: Dhiebi Sheikhdom of IRQA (en) + Mashyakhat AL-''IRQAH : مشيخة آل عرقة (ar)  (Al-''Irqah)
ITALA ITALA Residency  (Itala)Local: Residency of ATALA  (Itala)
KATHIRI British Protectorate of the KATHIRI Sultanate of Seiyun in Hadhramaut  (Seiyun)Local: KATHIRI State of Seiyun in Hadhramaut (en) + Saltanat Ay''un AL-KATHIRIYYA Hadramawt : السلطنة الكثيرية - سيؤن - حضرموت (ar)  (Sayun)
KEREN KEREN Residency  (Keren)Local: CHEREN Residency (en)  (Cheren)
KHUZISTAN British Protectorate of KHUZISTAN Province  (Ahwaz)Local: British Protectorate of KHUZISTAN Province (en) + Ostān-e KHUZESTAN : استان خوزستان (fa)  (Al-Ahwaz)
KISMAYO KISMAYO Residency  (Kismayo)Local: Residency of KISMAYO (en) + Residenza di CHISIMAIO (it)  (Kismayo)
KISUMU-LONDIANI Residency of KISUMU-LONDIANI District  (Londiani)Local: Residency of KISUMU-LONDIANI District (en)  (Londiani)
LAGOS HINTERLAND LAGOS Protectorate  (Lagos)Local: LAGOS Protectorate (en)  (Lagos)
LOWER AWLAKI British Protectorate of LOWER AWLAKI Sultanate of Ahwar  (Ahwar)Local: LOWER AWLAQI Sultanate of Hawar (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-SUFLA : سلطنة العوالق السفلى (ar)  (Ahwar)
LOWER YAFA British Protectorate of the Banu Afif Sultanate of LOWER YAFA  (Jaar)Local: Bani `Afif Sultanate of LOWER YAFA''I (en) + Salṭanat YĀFI‘ AS-SUFLÁ : سلطنة يافع السفلى (ar)  (Jaar)
LUGH FERRANDI LUGH FERRANDI Residency  (Lugh Ferrandi)Local: Residency of LUGH FERRANDI  (Lugh Ferrandi)
MALDIVE ISLANDS Sultanate of THE MALDIVE ISLANDS [British Protectorate administered from Ceylon]  (Male)Local: Sultanate of THE MALDIVE ISLANDS (en) + DHIVEHI RAJJE Sultanat : އައްސުލްޠާން ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ (dv)  (Male)
MARGHERITA MARGHERITA Residency  (Margherita)Local: MARGHERITA Residency  (Margherita)
MASSAWA MASSAWA Residency  (Massawa)Local: MASSAWA Residency (en)  (Massawa)
MERCA MERCA Residency  (Merca)Local: MERCA Residency (en) + Residenza di MERCA (it)  (Merca)
MOGADISHU MOGADISHU Residency  (Mogadishu)Local: Residency of MOGADISHU  (Mogadishu)
NAKFA NAKFA Residency  (Nakfa)Local: NAKFA Residency (en)  (Nakfa)
NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Protectorate of the NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Dependency  (Tamale)Local: NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Dependency (en)  (Tamale)
OBBIA OBBIA Residency  (Obbia)Local: OBBIA Residency (en) + Residenza di OBBIA (it)  (Obbia)
ODDUR ODDUR Residency  (Oddur)Local: Residency of ODDUR (en) + Residenza di ODDUR (it)  (Oddur)
OGADEN British Military Administration of the OGADEN  (Kelafo)Local: British Military Administration of the OGADEN (en)  (Kelafo)
OYO British Protectorate of the Yoruba State of OYO  (Oyo)Local: Yoruba State of OYO (en) + Ipinle ti OYO (yo)  (Oyo)
POTISKUM POTISKUM Residency  (Potiskum)Local: POTISKUM Residency (en)  (Potiskum)
QISHN AND SOCOTRA British Protectorate of the Mahri Sultanate of QISHN AND SOCOTRA  (Qishn + Tamrida)Local: Mahri Sultanate of QISHN AND SOCOTRA (en) + Salṭanat al-Mahrah fī QISHN WA SUQUṭRAH : سلطنة المهرة في قشن وسقطرة (ar)  (Qishn + Tamrida)
SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES British Protectorate of SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Tamrida)Local: British Protectorate of SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES (en) + SUQUTRAH : سقطرى وتبعيات (ar)  (Tamrida)
SWAZILAND Protectorate of SWAZILAND [British Residency Commission for Swaziland Crown Colony]  (Mbabane + Lobamba)Local: Protectorate of SWAZILAND (en)  (Mbabane + Lobamba)
TESSENEY TESSENEY Residency  (Tesseney)Local: TESSENEY Residency (en)  (Tesseney)
THIO THIO Residency  (Thio)Local: THIO Residency (en)  (Thio)
TORO TORO Kingdom [British Protectorate]  (Fort Portal)Local: Kingdom of TORO (en) + Omukama bwa TOORO (ttj)  (Fort Portal)
UPPER AWLAKI OF MAAN British Protectorate of UPPER AWLAKI Sheikhdom of Maan  (Yashbum + Said)Local: UPPER AWLAQI Sheikhdom of Maan (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-`ULYA : مشيخة العوالق العليا (ar)  (Yashbum + As-Said)
UPPER AWLAKI OF NISAB British Protectorate of UPPER AWLAKI Sultanate of Nisab  (Nisab)Local: UPPER AWLAQI Sultanate of Nisab (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-`ULYA : سلطنة العوالق العليا (ar)  (Nisab)
UPPER YAFA British Protectorate of the Sultanate of UPPER YAFA  (Mahjaba)Local: Sultanate of UPPER YAFA (en) + Saltanat YAFA` AL-ULYA : سلطنة يافع العليا (ar)  (Mahjabah)
WAHIDI BALHAF AND AZZAN British Protectorates of the Wahidi Sultanate of BALHAF AND AZZAN  (Balhaf + Azzan)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya BA AL-HAF WA ''AZZAN : سلطنة الواحدي في بلحاف والأذان (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of BAL HAF AND AZZAN (en)  (Ba Al-Haf + ''Azzan)
WAHIDI-BIR ALI AMAQUIN British Protectorate of the Wahidi Sultanate of BIR ALI AMAQUIN  (Bir Ali)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya BI''R ''ALI ''AMAQIN : سلطنة الواحدي بير علي اماكن (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of BIR ALI AMAQIN (en)  (Bir Ali)
WAHIDI-HABBAN British Protectorate of the Wahidi Sultanate of HABBAN  (Habban)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya HABBAN : سلطنة الواحدي حبان (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of HABBAN (en)  (Habban)
WARSANGELI Military Administration of the Sultanate of WARSANGELI  (Las Khorey)Local: Military Administration of the Sultanate of WARSANGELI (en) + Saldanada WARSANGELI (so) + Saltanat WARSINGELI : سلطنة أوسنجلي (ar)  (Las Khorey)
WESTERN ADEN States of THE WESTERN ADEN Protectorates  (Houta-Lahej The Green)Local: States of THE WESTERN ADEN Protectorates (en) + Muhmiat ADAN AL-GHARBIA : محمية عدن الغربية (ar)  (Al Houta-Lahej Al-Khathra)
YOLA Lamidate of Adamawa : Emirate of YOLA under British Protection  (Yola)Local: Emirate of YOLA (en) + Lamido YOLA : لمده يولاه (fub)  (Yola)



16 Governments in Exile

ALBANIA IN EXILE Kingdom of ALBANIA IN EXILE  (Parmoor) King Zog I Skanderbeg III
BRITISH BURMA IN EXILE British Colony of BURMA : Colonial Government of British Burma in Exile  (Simla + Fort Hertz) Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith
CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN EXILE CZECHOSLOVAK Government in Exile  (London) President Edvard Benes
DANZIG Association of Nationals of DANZIG Free State in exile  (London + Melbourne) W Richter
FIGHTING POLAND Government of the Republic of POLAND IN EXILE : Polish Underground State  (London + Polish Resistance) President Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz
FREE DENMARK FREE DANISH Council and Freedom Council  (London) John Christmas Moller
FREE ESTONIA ESTONIAN Representatives in Exile  (London) August Torma
GREECE IN EXILE Kingdom of GREECE in Exile  (Cairo) King George II
KAJARS KAJAR Dynasty in Exile  (Greenhithe) Prince Soltan Hamid Mirza Kajar
LATVIA IN EXILE Republic of LATVIA IN EXILE : Latvian Central Council  (London) Karlis Zarins
LUXEMBURG IN EXILE Grand Duchy of LUXEMBURG in Exile  (Montreal) Grand Duchess Charlotte
NETHERLANDS IN EXILE DUTCH Government in Exile [Dutch Colonial Realm]  (London + Ottawa) Queen Wilhelmina
NORWAY IN EXILE Kingdom of NORWAY IN EXILE  (London) King Haakon VII
PAN-AFRICA PAN-AFRICAN Federation  (Cape Coast) Jomo Kenyatta
SARAWAK Kingdom of SARAWAK in Exile  (Sydney) Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke
YUGOSLAVIA IN EXILE Kingdom of YUGOSLAVIA in Exile  (London) King Alexander I Karageorgevich



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

ABU SUEIR Royal Air Force ABU SUEIR  (Abu Sueir)Local: Royal Air Force ABU SUEIR (en)  (Abu Suweir)
AITUTAKI New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI  (Arutanga)Local: New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI (en)  (Arutanga)
ALCONBURY American use of British Royal Air Force ALCONBURY  (Alconbury)Local: American and British Royal Air Force ALCONBURY (en)  (Alconbury)
ANDROS BASE British Leased United States Base of ANDROS  (Fresh Creek Base)Local: ANDROS Base (en)  (Fresh Creek Base)
ATKINSON Leased ATKINSON Airfield  (Atkinson Airfield)Local: ATKINSON Airfield (en)  (Atkinson Airfield)
BEANE Leased BEANE Air Force Base  (Beane)Local: BEANE Air Force Base (en)  (Beane)
BRITISH GURKHAS British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara)Local: British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN (en)  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
CARLSEN Leased CARLSEN Field  (Edinburgh + Xeres)Local: CARLSEN Field (en)  (Edinburgh + Xeres)
COOLIDGE Leased COOLIDGE Air Field  (Coolidge Airfield)Local: COOLIDGE Air Field (en)  (Coolidge Airfield)
EL ADEM Royal Air Force Station EL ADEM  (El Adem)Local: Royal Air Force Station EL ADEM (en)  (El Adem)
GOOSE GOOSE Air Base  (Goose)Local: GOOSE Air Base (fr) + Base Aérienne GOOSE (fr)  (Goose)
HABBANIYA British Sovereign Base of the Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA  (Habbaniya)Local: Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA (en)  (Habbaniya)
IMPERIAL WAR GRAVES Imperial War Graves Commission : IWGC  (Maidenhead)Local: Imperial War Graves Commission : IWGC (en)  (Maidenhead)
LAJES FIELD British American and Portuguese Lajes Air Base : LAJES FIELD  (Lajes Field)Local: LAJES Field (en) + Base Aérea das LAJES (pt)  (Lajes Field)
MASIRAH British Military Base of MASIRAH  (Masirah)Local: British Military Base of MASIRAH (en)  (Masirah)
MELLAHA MELLAHA Air Field  (Mellaha)Local: MELLAHA Air Field (en)  (Mellaha)
MINA SALMAN MINA SALMAN Support Facility : British Base of Jufair  (Jufair)Local: MINA SALMAN Support Facility : Jufair Base (en)  (Jufair)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
SAN SALVADOR BASE Leased SAN SALVADOR Base  (San Sal)Local: SAN SALVADOR Base (en)  (San Sal)
SIMONSTOWN British Naval Base of SIMON''S TOWN  (Simon''s Town)Local: Naval Base SIMON''S TOWN (en)  (Simon''s Town)
SUFFIELD British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in SUFFIELD  (Suffield)Local: British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in SUFFIELD (en)  (Suffield)
VERNAM Leased VERNAM Airfield  (Vernam Field)Local: VERNAM Airfield (en)  (Vernamfield)
WALLER Leased WALLER Army Field  (Fort Read Post)Local: WALLER Army Field (en)  (Fort Read Post)
WIDEAWAKE BASE Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield  (Wideawake)Local: Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield (en)  (Wideawake)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London)
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ABERCORN Dukedom of ABERCORN  (Baronscourt)
ALCONBURY American use of British Royal Air Force ALCONBURY  (Alconbury)
ALDERNEY Parish of ALDERNEY  (Saint Anne''s)
ARGYLL Dukedom of ARGYLL  (Inveraray)
ATHOLL Dukedom of ATHOLL  (Atholl)
BEAUFORT Dukedom of BEAUFORT  (Badminton)
BEDFORD Dukedom of BEDFORD  (Woburn)
BERKSHIRE County of BERKSHIRE  (Reading)
BRANDON Dukedom of BRANDON  (Brandon)
BUCCLEUCH Dukedom of BUCCLEUCH  (Melrose)
BURHOU Dependency of BURHOU  (Burhou)
CHANNEL ISLANDS German Military Government of THE CHANNEL ISLANDS  (Saint Helier)
CINQUE PORTS Ward of THE CINQUE PORTS  (Hastings + New Romney + Hythe + Dover + Sandwich + Winchelsea + Rye + Seaford)
CITY OF LONDON City and County of London : Corporation of THE CITY OF LONDON  (London)
CORNWALL Duchy of CORNWALL  (Truro)
DEVONSHIRE Dukedom of DEVONSHIRE  (Exeter)
DOGGER BANK DOGGER BANK Area  (-)
ECREHOUS THE ECREHOUS Archipelago  (La Maitresse Ile)
ENGLAND Country of ENGLAND  (London + Westminster)
FIFE Dukedom of FIFE  (Elsick House)
GLOUCESTER Dukedom of GLOUCESTER  (Gloucester)
GORDON Dukedom of GORDON  (Huntly)
GRAFTON Dukedom of GRAFTON  (Grafton Regis)
GUERNSEY Bailiwick of GUERNSEY  (Saint Peter Port)
HAMILTON Dukedom of HAMILTON  (Hamilton)
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE City of Paris Property of HAUTEVILLE HOUSE  (Victor Hugo Home)
HERM Tenantry of HERM  (Herm)
ISLE OF WIGHT Administrative County of ISLE OF WIGHT  (Newport)
ISLE-OF-PORTLAND Dukedom of PORTLAND  (Portland)
ISLES OF SCILLY ISLES OF SCILLY Rural District Council  (Hugh Town)
JERSEY Bailiwick of JERSEY  (Saint Helier)
JETHOU Tenantry of JETHOU  (Jethou)
KENSINGTON Royal Borough of KENSINGTON  (Kensington)
KENT Dukedom of KENT  (Kensington + Westminster)
LANCASTER Duchy of LANCASTER  (Lancaster)
LEEDS Dukedom of LEEDS : County Borough of Leeds  (Leeds)
LENNOX Dukedom of LENNOX  (Lennoxtown)
LIHOU Tenantry of LIHOU  (Lihou)
LUNDY ISLAND Kingdom of LUNDY ISLAND  (Lundy)
MANCHESTER Dukedom of MANCHESTER  (Manchester)
MARLBOROUGH Dukedom of MARLBOROUGH  (Woodstock)
MINQUIERS THE MINQUIERS Archipelago  (Maitresse-Ile)
MONTROSE Dukedom of MONTROSE  (Montrose)
NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE Dukedom of NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE  (Newcastle-under-Lyme)
NORFOLK Dukedom of NORFOLK  (Norwich)
NORTHERN IRELAND Country of NORTHERN IRELAND  (Belfast)
NORTHUMBRIA Dukedom of NORTHUMBERLAND  (Alnwick)
ORKNEY County of ORKNEY  (Kirkwall)
OUTER HEBRIDES OUTER HEBRIDES Islands Group  (Stornoway)
QUEENSBERRY Dukedom of QUEENSBERRY  (Drumlanrig Castle)
RICHMOND Dukedom of RICHMOND  (Westhampnett)
ROCKALL Disputed Zone of ROCKALL  (-)
ROTHESAY Dukedom of ROTHESAY  (Rothesay)
ROXBURGHE Dukedom of ROXBURGHE  (Roxburgh)
RUTLAND Dukedom of RUTLAND  (Bottesford)
SAINT ALBANS Dukedom of SAINT ALBANS  (Saint Albans)
SARK German Occupied Seigniory of SARK  (La Seigneurie)
SCOTLAND Country of SCOTLAND  (Edinburgh)
SOMERSET Dukedom of SOMERSET  (Maiden Bradley)
STIRLINGSHIRE County of Stirling : Royal Burgh of STIRLING  (Stirling)
SUTHERLAND Dukedom of SUTHERLAND  (Trentham)
WALES Country of WALES  ((Westminster) + Cardiff)
WELLINGTON Dukedom of WELLINGTON  (Wellington)
WESTMINSTER Dukedom of WESTMINSTER  (Westminster)
WINDSOR Dukedom of WINDSOR : Royal Borough of Windsor  (Windsor)
ZETLAND County of ZETLAND  (Lerwick)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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