ethnia.org
 

2003-MAY-22

Zones:

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH Realms
(London + Westminster)

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH Realms

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH Realms (en) Ex SDN Member
Emblem or Symbol

Queen Elizabeth II
(ruler of UNITED KINGDOM since 1952-02-06)
Capital:London + Westminster - (London + Westminster)
Official languages: English (en) .

Mainland:


UNITED KINGDOM BRITISH COMMONWEALTH Realms  (London + Westminster)


22 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA Monarchy of ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA  (Saint John''s) Queen Elizabeth II
AUSTRALIA Commonwealth of AUSTRALIA  (Canberra) Queen Elizabeth II
BAHAMAS Commonwealth of THE BAHAMAS  (Nassau) Queen Elizabeth II
BARBADOS Monarchy of BARBADOS  (Bridgetown) Queen Elizabeth II
BELIZE Monarchy of BELIZE  (Belmopan) Queen Elizabeth II
CANADA Constitutional Monarchy of CANADA  (Ottawa) Queen Elizabeth II
COOK ISLANDS Associated Territory of COOK ISLANDS  (Avarua) Queen Elizabeth II
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London) Queen Elizabeth II
GRENADA Monarchy of GRENADA  (Saint George''s) Queen Elizabeth II
GUERNSEY Bailiwick of GUERNSEY  (Saint Peter Port) Queen Elizabeth II
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas) Queen Elizabeth II
JAMAICA Monarchy of JAMAICA  (Kingston) Queen Elizabeth II
JERSEY Bailiwick of JERSEY  (Saint Helier) Queen Elizabeth II
NEW ZEALAND Realm of NEW ZEALAND  (Wellington) Queen Elizabeth II
NIUE Associated State of NIUE  (Alofi) Queen Elizabeth II
NORFOLK ISLAND Associated Territory of NORFOLK ISLAND  (Kingston) Queen Elizabeth II
PAPUA NEW GUINEA Independent State of PAPUA NEW GUINEA  (Port Moresby) Queen Elizabeth II
SAINT CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS Federation of SAINT CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS  (Basseterre) Queen Elizabeth II
SAINT LUCIA Monarchy of SAINT LUCIA  (Castries) Queen Elizabeth II
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Monarchy of SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES  (Kingstown) Queen Elizabeth II
SOLOMON ISLANDS Monarchy of SOLOMON ISLANDS  (Honiara) Queen Elizabeth II
TUVALU Constitutional Monarchy of TUVALU  (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti) Queen Elizabeth II


5 Assisted Entities

FIJI ISLANDS Republic of THE FIJI ISLANDS  (Suva) President Ratu Josefa Iloilo
IRAQ Coalition Provisional Authority in the Republic of IRAQ [United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq-UNAMI]  (Camp Victory + Baghdad) President George Walker Bush
KIRIBATI Independent and Sovereign Republic of KIRIBATI  (South Tarawa) President Tion Otang
NAURU Republic of NAURU  (Yaren + Aiwo) President Derog Gioura
SAMOA Independent State of SAMOA  (Apia) Malietoa Tanumafili II



20 Condominiums:

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS Disputed Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS  (Fossil Bluff + Jubany Station + General Bernardo O''Higgins Riquelme Base)Local: Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS (en) + Sector del ANTÁRTICA Y LAS ISLAS DEL ATLÁNTICO SUR (es)  (Fossil Bluff + Base Jubany + Base General Bernardo O''Higgins Riquelme)
AUSTRALIAN ANTARCTICA Australian Antarctic Territory : AAT  (Mawson Station + Davis Station + Casey Station)Local: Australian Antarctic Territory : AAT (en)  (Mawson Station + Davis Station + Casey Station)
BELGIAN ZONE IN GERMANY Belgian Forces in GERMANY  (Troisdorf-Spich)Local: Belgian Forces in GERMANY (en) + Forces belges en ALLEMAGNE (fr) + Belgische strijdkrachten in DUITSLAND (nl) + Belgischen Streitkräfte in DEUTSCHLAND (de)  (Troisdorf-Spich)
BRITISH ANTARCTIC TERRITORY British Overseas Territory of BRITISH ANTARCTIC TERRITORY  (Halley + (Rothera Station))Local: British Overseas Territory of BRITISH ANTARCTIC TERRITORY (en)  (Halley + (Rothera Station))
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
DIEGO GARCIA British Forces British Indian Ocean Territories Joint United States Naval Support Facility of DIEGO GARCIA  (Diego Garcia)Local: United States Naval Support Facility DIEGO GARCIA (en)  (Diego Garcia)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
GREEN ZONE International Zone of the Coalition Provisional Authority : GREEN ZONE  (Baghdad)Local: International Zone of the Coalition Provisional Authority : GREEN ZONE (en) + Al-Minṭaqah al-ḫaḍrā : AL-MINTAQAH AL-HADRA - المنطقة الخضراء (ar)  (Baghdad)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
KOSOVO Republic of KOSOVO [United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo-UNMIK]  (Prishtina)Local: Republika e KOSOVËS (sq) + Republika KOSOVO : Република КОСОВО (sr)  (Prishtine)
MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND Disputed Zone of MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND  (Machias Seal Island)Local: MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND Zone (en) + Zone de l''ÎLE MACHIAS SEAL (fr)  (Machias Seal Island)
NEUTRAL TERRITORY Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
PITCAIRN HENDERSON DUCIE AND OENO ISLANDS British Overseas Territory of PITCAIRN HENDERSON DUCIE AND OENO ISLANDS  (Adamstown)Local: British Overseas Territory of PITCAIRN HENDERSON DUCIE AND OENO ISLANDS (en)  (Adamstown)
ROSS New Zealand Antarctic Territory : ROSS Dependency  (Scott Base)Local: ROSS Dependency (en) + ROSS Whakawhirinaki (mi)  (Scott Base)
SINAI PENINSULA Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones  (Rome + El Gorah + Sharm El-Sheikh)Local: Multinational Force and Observers : MFO (en) + Al-Quat Mutaeadidat al-Jinsiat wal Muraqibun fi SINA'' : القوة متعددة الجنسيات والمراقبون (ar)  (Roma + El Gorah + Sharm Ash-Shaykh)
SINAI ZONE D Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D  (Zone D)Local: Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D (en) + MIZRAHI SINAI : מזרח סיני (he) + SINA'' ASH-SHARQ : شرق سيناء (ar)  (Zone D)
SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS Disputed British-Argentinian Zone of FILCHNER-RONNE ICE-SHELF AND SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS  (Orcadas + (Signy))Local: Zone of FILCHNER-RONNE ICE-SHELF AND SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS (en) + Zona del BANCO DE HIELO FILCHNER-RONNE Y ISLAS ORCADAS DEL SUR (es)  (Orcadas + (Signy))
UNITED NATIONS MEMORIAL CEMETERY Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK  (Tanggok)Local: Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK (en) + Jaehahn Yuen Ginyeomgongwon : JYG - 재한유엔기념공원 (ko) + Birleşmiş Milletler Anıt Mezarlığı Komisyonu : BMAMK (tr)  (Tanggok)
WESTERN COATS LAND Disputed British-Argentinian Zone of WESTERN COATS LAND AND WEDDELL SEA : Brazilian Antarctica Zone of Interest  (Belgrano Two Base + Halley)Local: Zone of WESTERN COATS LAND AND WEDDELL SEA (en) + Zona de la TIERRA DE BELGRANO Y MAR WEDDELL (es)  (Belgrano Dos + Halley)
WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND Chilean-British Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND  ((Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))Local: Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND (en) + Sector en la TIERRA DE ELLSWORTH OCCIDENTAL (es)  ((Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))



8 Governments in Exile

BELARUSSIA BELARUSSIAN National Republic : Belorussian Republic in Exile  (Toronto) Ivonka Symaniec-Survilla
BURMA National Council of the Union of BURMA  (New York City + Rockville) U Maung Maung Gyi
DANZIG Government in Exile of the Free State of DANZIG  (Frankfort on the Main + Noble Park) Ernst Kriesner
ICHKERIA Chechen Republic of ICKHKERIA in Exile  (London) President Aslan Maskhadov
IRANIAN KURDISTAN Democratic Party of IRANIAN KURDISTAN  (London) Mamoste Abdullah Hassanzada
ROHINGYA Rohingya National Council : RNC  (London + Cox''s Bazar) Nurul Islam
SOUTH CAMBODIA KHMERS KAMPUCHEA-KROM Federation  (Toronto) To Kim Thong
SYRIAN KURDISTAN KURDISTAN National Congress  (London) President Jawad Mella



Military entities abroad or locally shared:

AIRNORTH Allied Air Forces North Europe : AIRNORTH  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Forces North Europe : AIRNORTH (en) + Forces Aériennes Alliées de l''Europe du Nord : AIRNORTH (fr)  (Ramstein)
AKROTIRI American Facilities in AKROTIRI  (Akrotiri Airfield)Local: American Facilities in AKROTIRI (en)  (Akrotiri Airfield)
AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA British Overseas Territory of the Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA : British Forces Cyprus  (Episkopi Cantonment)Local: British Overseas Territory of the Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA (en)  (Episkopi Cantonment)
AKROTIRI-EPISKOPI Western Sovereign Base Area : AKROTIRI  (Episkopi Cantonment)Local: Western Sovereign Base Area : WSBA (en)  (Episkopi Cantonment)
ALI AL SALEM ALI AL SALEM Air Base  (Ali Al Salem)Local: ALI AL SALEM Air Base (en) + Qaeidat ALI AS-SALIM al-Jawwia : قاعدة علي السالم الجوية (ar)  (Ali Al Salem)
ARRC Headquarters Allied Rapid Reaction Corps : ARRC  (Rheindalen)Local: Headquarters Allied Rapid Reaction Corps : ARRC (en)  (Rheindalen)
BARDUFOSS BARDUFOSS Air Station  (Bardufoss)Local: BARDUFOSS Flystasjon (nb) + BARDUFOSS Flystasjon (nn)  (Bardufoss)
BASE PEARCE Royal Australian Air Force BASE PEARCE  (Base Pearce)Local: Royal Australian Air Force BASE PEARCE (en)  (Base Pearce)
BATUK British Army Training Unit Kenya : BATUK  (Kifaru Camp in Nairobi + Archer''s Post + Dol Dol)Local: British Army Training Unit Kenya : BATUK (en)  (Kifaru Camp + Archer''s Post + Dol Dol)
BATUS British Army Training Unit Suffield : BATUS  (Suffield)Local: British Army Training Unit Suffield : BATUS (en)  (Suffield)
BELIZE BASE Royal Air Force BELIZE  (Price Barracks in Ladyville)Local: Royal Air Force BELIZE (en)  (Price Barracks)
BRITISH BASES IN GERMANY British Forces in GERMANY  (Herford)Local: British Forces GERMANY (en)  (Herford)
BRITISH GURKHAS British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara + Dharan)Local: British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN (en)  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara + Dharan)
BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath + Menwith Hill)Local: American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES (en)  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath + Menwith Hill )
BRUNEI GARRISON British Military Garrison Brunei : British Armed Forces in BRUNEI  (Seria)Local: British Military Garrison Brunei : British Forces BRUNEI (en)  (Seria)
BUTTERWORTH BASE Royal Malaysian Air Force BUTTERWORTH Base  (Station Butterworth)Local: Royal Malaysian Air Force BUTTERWORTH Base (en) + Tentera Udara Di-Raja Malaysia BUTTERWORTH (ms)  (Station Butterworth)
CAMP-DOHA Joint Military Base of CAMP DOHA  (Camp Doha)Local: Joint Military Base of CAMP DOHA (en) + Qaeidat Askariat Mushtarakat min MUASKAR AL-DAWHA : قاعدة عسكرية مشتركة من معسكر الدوحة (ar)  (Camp Doha)
CAMP-MIRAGE Canadian Base of CAMP MIRAGE  (Camp Mirage)Local: CAMP MIRAGE Base (en) + Base de CAMP MIRAGE (fr)  (Camp Mirage)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
COMMONWEALTH WAR GRAVES Commonwealth War Graves Commission : CWGC  (Maidenhead)Local: Commonwealth War Graves Commission : CWGC (en)  (Maidenhead)
DHEKELIA Eastern Sovereign Base Area : DHEKELIA  (Dhekelia Cantonment)Local: Eastern Sovereign Base Area : ESBA (en)  (Dhekelia Cantonment)
DIEGO GARCIA British Forces British Indian Ocean Territories Joint United States Naval Support Facility of DIEGO GARCIA  (Diego Garcia)Local: United States Naval Support Facility DIEGO GARCIA (en)  (Diego Garcia)
DOHA BASES DOHA AND AL UDEID Air Bases  (Abu Nakhlah Airport + Camp Snoopy)Local: AL-UDEID Air Base (en) + AL-UDEID : قاعدة العديد الجوية (ar)  (Abu Nakhlah + Camp Snoopy)
GOOSE BAY Canadian Forces Base GOOSE BAY  (Goose Bay)Local: Canadian Forces Base GOOSE BAY (en) + Base des Forces Canadiennes GOOSE BAY (fr)  (Goose Bay)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
MANUS CENTRE MANUS Regional Processing Centre  (Lombrum)Local: MANUS Regional Processing Centre (en)  (Lombrum)
NATO BRUNSSUM Regional Head Quarters of Allied Forces Northern Europe : RHQ AFNORTH  (Brunssum)Local: Regional Head Quarters of Allied Forces Northern Europe : RHQ AFNORTH (en) + Quartier Général Régional des Forces Alliées en Europe du Nord : RHQ AFNORTH (fr)  (Brunssum)
NAURU CENTRE NAURU Regional Processing Centre  (Meneng Centre)Local: NAURU Regional Processing Centre (en)  (Meneng Centre)
NAVNORTH Allied Naval Forces North : NAVNORTH  (Northwood)Local: Allied Naval Forces North : NAVNORTH (en)  (Northwood)
PINE GAP Joint Defence Facility PINE GAP  (Pine Gap)Local: Joint Defence Facility PINE GAP (en)  (Pine Gap)
SAIF SAREEA SAIF SAREEA Bases of Exercise  (Thumrait + Seeb)Local: Exercise SAIF SAREEA (en)  (Thamarit + As-Sib)
SEMBAWANG BASE SEMBAWANG Air Base  (Sembawang Base)Local: SEMBAWANG Air Base (en) + SANBAWANG Kōngjūn Jīdì : 三巴旺空军基地 (zh) + Pangkalan Udara SEMBAWANG (ms) + CEMPAVĀṅ Vāṉpaṭait Taḷam : செம்பவாங் வான்படைத் தளம் (ta)  (Sembawang Base)
WIDEAWAKE BASE Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield  (Wideawake)Local: Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield (en)  (Wideawake)



Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London)
GUERNSEY Bailiwick of GUERNSEY  (Saint Peter Port)
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas)
JERSEY Bailiwick of JERSEY  (Saint Helier)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ABERCORN Dukedom of ABERCORN  (Baronscourt)
ALDERNEY States of ALDERNEY  (Saint Anne''s)
ARGYLL Dukedom of ARGYLL  (Inveraray)
ATHOLL Dukedom of ATHOLL  (Atholl)
BEAUFORT Dukedom of BEAUFORT  (Badminton)
BEDFORD Dukedom of BEDFORD  (Woburn)
BERKSHIRE Royal County of BERKSHIRE  (Reading)
BRANDON Dukedom of BRANDON  (Brandon)
BRECHOU Tenantry of BRECHOU  (Brechou)
BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath + Menwith Hill)
BUCCLEUCH Dukedom of BUCCLEUCH  (Melrose)
BURHOU Dependency of BURHOU  (The Hut)
CINQUE PORTS Ward of THE CINQUE PORTS  (Hastings + New Romney + Hythe + Dover + Sandwich + Winchelsea + Rye + Seaford)
CITY OF LONDON Corporation of THE CITY OF LONDON  (London)
CORNWALL Duchy of CORNWALL  (Truro)
CUCKFIELD Independent State of CUCKFIELD  (Cuckfield)
DEVONSHIRE Dukedom of DEVONSHIRE  (Exeter)
DOGGER BANK DOGGER BANK Area  (-)
ECREHOU Principality of ECREHOU  (La Maitresse Ile)
EDINBURGH Dukedom of EDINBURGH  (Edinburgh)
ENGLAND Country of ENGLAND  (London + Westminster)
FIFE Dukedom of FIFE  (Elsick House)
GLOUCESTER Dukedom of GLOUCESTER  (Gloucester)
GORDON Dukedom of GORDON  (Huntly)
GRAFTON Dukedom of GRAFTON  (Grafton Regis)
GREATER LONDON GREATER LONDON Authority  (London)
HAMILTON Dukedom of HAMILTON  (Hamilton)
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE City of Paris Property of HAUTEVILLE HOUSE  (Victor Hugo Home)
HAY-ON-WYE Independent Kingdom of HAY-ON-WYE  (Hay-on-Wye)
HERM Tenantry of HERM  (Herm)
ISLE OF ALDERNEY Parish of ALDERNEY  (Saint Anne''s)
ISLE OF WIGHT Ceremonial County of ISLE OF WIGHT  (Newport)
ISLES OF SCILLY ISLES OF SCILLY Council  (Hugh Town)
JETHOU Tenantry of JETHOU  (Jethou)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)
KENSINGTON AND CHELSEA Royal Borough of KENSINGTON AND CHELSEA  (Kensington)
KENT Dukedom of KENT  (Kensington + Westminster)
KINGSTON UPON THAMES Royal Borough of KINGSTON UPON THAMES  (Kingston upon Thames)
LANCASTER Duchy of LANCASTER  (Lancaster)
LENNOX Dukedom of LENNOX  (Lennoxtown)
LIHOU Tenantry of LIHOU  (Lihou)
MANCHESTER Dukedom of MANCHESTER  (Manchester)
MARLBOROUGH Dukedom of MARLBOROUGH  (Woodstock)
MINQUIERS THE MINQUIERS Archipelago  (Port Tounens)
MONTROSE Dukedom of MONTROSE  (Montrose)
NAVNORTH Allied Naval Forces North : NAVNORTH  (Northwood)
NORFOLK Dukedom of NORFOLK  (Norwich)
NORTHERN IRELAND Directly administered Country of NORTHERN IRELAND  (Belfast)
NORTHUMBRIA Dukedom of NORTHUMBERLAND  (Alnwick)
ORKNEY ISLANDS Unitary Authority of Orkney Islands : ORKNEY ISLANDS Council Area  (Kirkwall)
QUEENSBERRY Dukedom of QUEENSBERRY  (Drumlanrig Castle)
RICHMOND Dukedom of RICHMOND  (Westhampnett)
ROCKALL Isle of ROCKALL  (-)
ROXBURGHE Dukedom of ROXBURGHE  (Roxburgh)
RUTLAND Dukedom of RUTLAND  (Bottesford)
SAINT ALBANS Dukedom of SAINT ALBANS  (Saint Albans)
SARK Seigniory of SARK  (La Seigneurie)
SCOTLAND Government of SCOTLAND  (Edinburgh)
SEALAND Principality of SEALAND  (Fort Roughs)
SHETLAND ISLANDS Unitary Authority of Shetland Islands : SHETLAND ISLANDS Council Area  (Lerwick)
SOMERSET Dukedom of SOMERSET  (Maiden Bradley)
SUTHERLAND Dukedom of SUTHERLAND  (Trentham)
UNITED IRELAND Pro-Irish Continuity Army Council : Continuity Irish Republican Army : CIRA  (Limerick + Cira)
WALES Government of WALES  (Cardiff)
WELLINGTON Dukedom of WELLINGTON  (Wellington)
WESTERN ISLES Unitary Authority of Eilean Siar : OUTER HEBRIDES ISLANDS Council Area  (Stornoway)
WESTMINSTER Dukedom of WESTMINSTER  (Westminster)
WINDSOR AND MAIDENHEAD Royal Borough of WINDSOR AND MAIDENHEAD  (Maidenhead)
YORK Dukedom of YORK  (York)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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