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1953-APR-10

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United Nations Organization : UNO

Flag or logo since 1946-12-07*
United Nations Organization : UNO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies : ONU (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas : ONU (es) + Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy : OON - Организация Объединённых Наций : OOH (ru) + Lien Ho-Kuo Tsu-Chih: LHK - 聯合國 組織 (zh) Organisation
Emblem or Symbol*

SG Dag Hammarskjold (se)
(since 1953-04-10)
Capital:New York City - (New York City)
Official languages: English (en) . Spanish (es) . French (fr) . Russian (ru) . Chinese (zh) .

Organisation:


UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)

10 Organs or similar:

CND Commission on Narcotic Drugs : CND  (Lake Success)Local: Commission on Narcotic Drugs : CND (en) + Commission sur les Stupéfiants : CND (fr) + Comisión de Drogas : CND (es)  (Lake Success)
ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council : ECOSOC  (New York City + Geneva)Local: United Nations Economic and Social Council : ECOSOC (en) + Conseil Économique et Social des Nations-Unies : CÉSNU (fr) + Consejo Económico y Social de las Naciones Unidas : CESNU (es) + Ekonomicheskiy i Sotsial''nyy Sovet Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : ESSOON - Экономический и Социальный Совет Организации Объединённых Наций : ЭССООН (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Ching-Chi chi She-Huei Li-Shih Huei : 聯合國經濟及社會理​​事會 (zh)  (New York City + Genève)
ICEM Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : ICEM  (Geneva)Local: Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : ICEM (en) + Comité Intergouvernemental pour les Migrations Européennes : CIME (fr)  (Genève)
UNDC United Nations Disarmament Commission : UNDC  (New York City)Local: United Nations Disarmament Commission : UNDC (en) + Commssion du Désarmement des Nations-Unies : CDNU (fr)  (New York City)
UNEO United Nations European Office : UNEO  (Geneva)Local: Office Européen des Nations-Unies : OENU (fr) + United Nations European Office : UNEO (en)  (Genève)
UNGA United Nations General Assembly : UNGA  (New York City)Local: United Nations General Assembly : UNGA (en) + Assemblée Générale des Nations-Unies : AGNU (fr) + Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas : AGNU (es) + General''naya Assambleya Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : GAOON - Генеральная Ассамблея Организации Объединённых Наций : ГAOOH (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Ta-Huei : LT - 聯合國大會 (zh)  (New York City)
UNNY United Nations Headquarters in New York City : UNNY  (New York City)Local: United Nations Headquarters in New York City : UNNY (en) + Siège des Nations-Unies à New York : UNNY (fr) + Sede de las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York : UNNY (es) + Tsentral''nyye Uchrezhdeniya Organizatsii Ob''yedinennykh Natsiy : TSUOON - Центральные Учреждения Организации Объединенных Наций : ЦУOOH (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Tsung-Pu Ta-Lou : 聯合國總部大樓 (zh)  (New York City)
UNS United Nations Secretariat : UNS  (New York City)Local: United Nations Secretariat : UNS (en) + Secrétariat général des Nations-Unies : SGNU (fr) + Secretaría General de Naciones Unidas : SGNU (es) + Sekretariat Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : SOON - Секретариат Организации Объединённых Наций : COOH (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Mi-Shu Ch''u : 聯合國秘書處 (zh)  (New York City)
UNSC United Nations Security Council : UNSC  (New York City)Local: United Nations Security Council : UNSC (en) + Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas : CSNU (es) + Conseil de Sécurité des Nations-Unies : CSNU (fr) + Sovet Bezopasnosti Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : SOON - Совет Безопасности Организации Объединённых Наций : СБOO (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo An-Ch''üan Li-Shih Huei : LATH - 聯合國安全理事會 (zh)  (New York City)
UNTT United Nations Trust Territories : UNTT  (New York City)Local: United Nations Trust Territories : UNTT (en) + Territoires sous Tutelle des Nations-Unies : TTNU (fr)  (New York City)



5 Assisted Entities

FREE KASHMIR Free State of Jammu and Kashmir : FREE KASHMIR [United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan-UNMOGIP]  (Muzaffarabad) President Colonel Shir Ahmad Khan
FRENCH TOGO FRENCH TOGO Associated Territory [United Nations Trusteeship]  (Lome) President Vincent Auriol
JAMMU AND KASHMIR Republic of JAMMU AND KASHMIR [United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan-UNMOGIP at Srinagar]  (Jammu + Srinagar) Karan Singh
SOUTH KOREA Republic of KOREA [Military Assistance of the United States and United Nations Forces]  (Seoul) President Syngman Rhee
TRIESTE Free Territory of TRIESTE [Anglo-American and Yugoslav Administrations under United Nations supervision]  (Trieste) Allied Governors



16 Territories:

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)Local: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies pour l''Alimentation et l''Agriculture : ONUAA (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura : FAO (es) + Prodovolstvennaya i Selskohozyaystvennaya Organizatsiya Obedinennyh Natsy : FAO - Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация Объединенных Наций : ФАО (ru) + Lian-Ho-Kuo Liang-Shih-chi Nung-Yeh Tsu-Chih : 聯合國糧食及農業組織 (zh)  (Roma)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD (en) + Banque Internationale de Reconstruction et de Développement : BIRD (fr) + Banco Internacional de Reconstrucción y Desarrollo : BIRD (es) + Mezhdunarodnyy Bank Rekonstruktsii i Razvitiya : Международный Банк Реконструкции и Развития : МБРР (ru) + Kuo-Chi Fu-Hsing ho K''ai-Fa Yin-Hang : SHIH-CHIEH YIN-HANG - 國際復興和開發銀行: 世界銀行 (zh)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)Local: International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency (en) + Organisation de l''Aviation Civile Internationale : Agence spécialisée de l''OACI (fr)  (Montréal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)Local: International Court of Justice : ICJ (en) + Cour Internationale de Justice : CIJ (fr)  (''s-Gravenhage)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: International Labour Organization : ILO (en) + Organisation Internationale du Travail : OIT (fr) + Organización Internacional del Trabajo : OIT (es)  (Genève)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: International Monetary Fund : IMF (en) + Fonds Monétaire International : FMI (fr) + Fondo Monetario Internacional : FMI (es)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: International Telecommunication Union : ITU (en) + Union Internationale des Télécommunications : UIT (fr) + Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones: UIT (es) + Mezhdunarodnyy Soyuz Elektrosvyazi : MSE - Международный Союз Электросвязи : МСЭ (ru) + Kuo-Chi Tien-Hsin Lien-Meng : KTL - 國際電信聯盟 (zh)  (Genève)
IUPN International Union for the Protection of Nature : IUPN  (Brussels)Local: International Union for the Protection of Nature : IUPN (en) + Union Internationale pour la Protection de la Nature : UIPN (fr)  (Bruxelles)
PASB Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB (en) + Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana : OSP (es) + Bureau Sanitaire Panaméricain : BSP (fr)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)Local: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies pour l''Éducation la Science et la Culture : UNESCO (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación la Ciencia y la Cultura : UNESCO (es) + Organizatsiya Obedinennyh Natsiy po Voprosam ObrazovanIa Nauki i Kultury : UNESKO - Организация Объединённых Наций по вопросам образования науки и культуры : ЮНЕСКО (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Chia-Yü K''o-Hsüeh-Chi Wen-Hua Tsu-Chih : UNESCO - 聯合國教育、科學及文化組織'' (zh)  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)Local: United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR (en) + Haut-Commissariat des Nations-Unies pour les Réfugiés : HCR (fr) + Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados : ACNUR (es) + Upravlenie Verhovnogo Komissara Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Delam Bezhentsev : UVKB - Управление Верховного комиссара Организации Объединённых Наций по делам беженцев : УВКБ (ru) + Lien-Ho-Kuo Nan-Min Shih-Wu Kao-Chi-Chuan-Yuan Pan-Shih-Ch''u : NSKC - 聯合國難民事務高級專員辦事處 (zh)  (Genève)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Temporary Agency  (New York City)Local: United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF (en) + Fonds des Nations-Unies pour l''Enfance : UNICEF (fr) + Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Infancia : UNICEF (es) + Detskiy Fond Organizatsii Obedinennyh Natsiy : UNICEF - Детский фонд Организации Объединённых Наций : ЮНИСЕ (ru) + Lien-He-Guo Er-Tong Ji-Jin-Hui : 联合国儿童基金会 (zh)  (New York City)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)Local: UNRWA : وكالة الأمم المتحدة لإغاثة وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين (ar) + United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA (en) + Office de Secours et de Travaux des Nations-Unies pour les Réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient : UNRWA (fr)  (Gazzah + Amman)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)Local: Union Postale Universelle : UPU (fr)  (Bern)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)Local: World Health Organization : WHO (en) + Organización Mundial de la Salud : OMS (es) + Organisation Mondiale de la Santé : OMS (fr) + Vsemirnaya Organizatsiya Zdravoohraneniya : VOZ - Всемирная Oрганизация Здравоохранения : BOЗ (ru) + Shih-Chieh Wei-Sheng Tsu-Chih : SWT - 世界衛生組織 (zh)  (Pregny-Chambésy)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Lausanne)Local: World Meteorological Organization : WMO (en) + Organisation Météorologique Mondiale : OMM (fr) + Organización Meteorológica Mundial : OMM (es) + Vsemirnaya Meteorologicheskaya Organizatsiya : VMO - Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация : BMO (ru) + Shih-Chieh Ch''i-Hsiang Tsu-Chih : SCT - 世界氣象組織 (zh)  (Lausanne)

19 Condominiums:

BRITISH CAMEROONS United Nations Trust Territory of the Cameroons under British Administration : BRITISH CAMEROONS administered from Nigeria  (Buea)Local: United Nations Trust Territory of the CAMEROONS under British Administration (en)  (Buea)
FRENCH CAMEROON Territory of FRENCH CAMEROON [United Nations Trust Territory under French Administration]  (Yaounde)Local: Territoire du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Yaoundé)
ITALIAN SOMALILAND United Nations Trust Territory of SOMALILAND under Italian Administration  (Mogadishu)Local: Amministrazione fiduciaria Italiana della SOMALIA ITALIANA (it)  (Mogadiscio)
NAURU NAURU Local Government Council [Australian Administration of the United Nations Trust Territory]  (Makwa)Local: NAURU Local Government Council (en) + Teritori NAOERO (na)  (Makwa)
NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA Territory of NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA [Australian administration of the United Nations Trust Territory in Papua and New Guinea]  (Rabaul)Local: United Nations Trust Territory for NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA (en)  (Rabaul)
PACIFIC ISLANDS United Nations Trust Territory of THE PACIFIC ISLANDS  (Garapan on Saipan)Local: United Nations Trust Territory of THE PACIFIC ISLANDS (en)  (Garapan on Saipan)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN GAZA STRIP PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN GAZA STRIP : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Beach Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN GAZA STRIP : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Al-Shati)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN JORDAN PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN JORDAN : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Zarka Camp)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN JORDAN : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Zarqa Camp)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN LEBANON PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN LEBANON : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Burj El Barajneh)Local: CAMPS DE RÉFUGIÉS PALESTINIENS AU LIBAN : UNRWA-Office de secours et de travaux des Nations unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient  (Bourj El-Barajneh)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Jaramana)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Jaramana)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN WEST BANK PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN WEST BANK : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Aqabat Jaber)Local: PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN WEST BANK : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Aqabat Jabr)
RUANDA-URUNDI Province of RUANDA-URUNDI [United Nations Trust Territory administered from Belgian Congo]  (Usumbura)Local: Province du RUANDA-URUNDI (fr) + Provincie ROEANDA-OEROENDI (nl)  (Usumbura)
TANGANYIKA United Nations Trust Territory of TANGANYIKA Territory  (Dar Es Salaam)Local: Territory of TANGANYIKA (en)  (Dar Es Salaam)
TRANS-VOLTA TOGOLAND TRANS-VOLTA TOGOLAND Region [United Nations Trust Territory administered from Gold Coast]  (Ho)Local: Trans-Volta Togoland Region : TVT (en)  (Ho)
UNITED NATIONS MILITARY CEMETERY United Nations Military Cemetery : UNMC  (Tanggok)Local: United Nations Military Cemetery : UNMC (en) + Cimetière Militaire des Nations-Unies: CMNU (fr)  (Tanggok)
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization : UNTSO  (Government House of Jerusalem)Local: United Nations Truce Supervision Organization : UNTSO (en) + Organisme des Nations-Unies chargé de la Surveillance de la Trêve : ONUST (fr)  (Government House of Jerusalem)
WESTERN SAMOA United Nations Trust Territory of WESTERN SAMOA  (Apia)Local: United Nations Trust Territory of WESTERN SAMOA (en) + Teritori o SAMOA I SISIFO (sm)  (Apia)
ZONE A OF TRIESTE Italian Civil Administration of ZONE A of Trieste  (Trieste)Local: ZONE A of the Free Territory of Trieste (en) + Territorio Libero di TRIESTE (it)  (Trieste)
ZONE B OF TRIESTE Zone B of the Free Territory of TRIESTE  (Capodistria)Local: Vojna Uprava Jugoslavenske Armije Slobodni Teritorij Trsta : TRSTA ZONA B - Војна Управа Југославенске Армије Трста : ТРСТА ЗОНА Б (sh)  (Koper)



Military entity abroad, special or locally shared:

UNITED NATIONS MILITARY CEMETERY United Nations Military Cemetery : UNMC  (Tanggok)Local: United Nations Military Cemetery : UNMC (en) + Cimetière Militaire des Nations-Unies: CMNU (fr)  (Tanggok)


60 Members (excluding the associate or suspended members but including the countries represented on their behalf)   [The rulers are not necessarily the representatives in the organisation. ] :

AFGHANISTAN (Kabul) King Mohammad Zahir Shah
ARGENTINE (Buenos Aires) President Juan Peron
AUSTRALIA (Canberra) Queen Elizabeth II
BELGIUM (Brussels) King Baudoin I
BOLIVIA (Sucre + La Paz) President Victor Paz Estenssoro
BRAZIL (Rio of Janeiro) President Getulio Vargas
BYELORUSSIA (Minsk) Nikolai Patolichev
CANADA (Ottawa) Queen Elizabeth II
CHILE (Santiago of Chile + Valparaiso) President Carlos Ibanez del Campo
COLOMBIA (Bogota) President Laureano Gomez
COSTA RICA (San Jose) President Luis Emilio Rafael de la Trinidad
CZECHOSLOVAKIA (Prague) Antonin Novotny
CUBA (Havana) Fulgencio Batista
DOMINICAN (Ciudad Trujillo) Generalissimo Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
DENMARK (Copenhagen) King Frederick IX
ECUADOR (San Francisco of Quito) President Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra
EGYPT (Cairo) Muhammad Naguib
ETHIOPIA-ERITREA (Addis Ababa) Emperor Ras Tafari Haile Selassie I
FRENCH UNION (Paris) President Vincent Auriol
GREECE (Athens) King Paul I
GUATEMALA (Guatemala City) President Juan Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
HONDURAS (Tegucigalpa + Comayaguela) President Juan Manuel Galvez
HAITI (Port Au Prince) President Paul Magloire
INDONESIA (Jakarta) President Ahmad Sukarno
ISRAEL (West Jerusalem + Tel Aviv-Jaffa) President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi
INDIA (New Delhi) President Rajendra Prasad
IRAQ (Baghdad) King Faysal II
IRAN (Tehran) Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
ICELAND (Reykjavik) President Asgeir Asgeirsson
LEBANON (Beirut) President Camille Chamoun
LIBERIA (Monrovia) President William Tubman
LUXEMBOURG (Luxembourg) Grand Duchess Charlotte
BURMA (Rangoon) President Ba U
MEXICO (Mexico City) President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
NICARAGUA (Managua) President Anastasio Somoza Garcia
NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam + The Hague) Queen Juliana
NORWAY (Oslo) King Haakon VII
NEW ZEALAND (Wellington) Queen Elizabeth II
PANAMA (Panama City) President Jose Antonio Remon Cantera
PERU (Lima) President Manuel Arturo Odria
PHILIPPINES (Quezon City + Baguio City) President Elpidio Quirino
PAKISTAN (Karachi) Queen Elizabeth II
POLAND (Warsaw) Boleslaw Bierut
PARAGUAY (Assumption) President Federico Chaves
SAUDI ARABIA (Riyadh) King Abdul Aziz bin Saud
SWEDEN (Stockholm) King Gustav VI Adolphe
SOVIET UNION (Moscow) Nikita Khrushchev
EL SALVADOR (San Salvador) President Oscar Osorio
SYRIA (Damascus) Fawzi al-Selu
THAILAND (Bangkok) King Rama IX Bhumibol Adulyadej
TURKEY (Ankara) President Celal Bayar
CHINA (Taipeh) President Chiang Kai-Shek
UKRAINE (Kiev) Leonid Melnikov
UNITED KINGDOM (London + Westminster) Queen Elizabeth II
AMERICA (Washington-District of Columbia) President Dwight David Eisenhower
URUGUAY (Montevideo) President Andres Martinez Trueba
VENEZUELA (Caracas) President Marcos Perez Jimenez
YEMEN (Taiz) Imam and King Ahmad IV ash-Shams
YUGOSLAVIA (Belgrade) President Josip Broz Tito
SOUTH AFRICA (Pretoria + Cape Town) Queen Elizabeth II



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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