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United States of America : USA
(Washington-District of Columbia)

United States of America : USA SDN Observer

Flag or logo since 1912-07-04
United States of America : USA (en)
Emblem or Symbol

President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(ruler of AMERICA since 1933-03-04)
Capital:Washington-District of Columbia(Washington-District of Columbia)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


AMERICA United States of America : USA  (Washington-District of Columbia)

48 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

ALABAMA State of ALABAMA  (Montgomery)Local: State of ALABAMA (en)  (Montgomery)
ARIZONA State of ARIZONA  (Phoenix)Local: State of ARIZONA (en)  (Phoenix)
ARKANSAS State of ARKANSAS  (Little Rock)Local: State of ARKANSAS (en)  (Little Rock)
CALIFORNIA State of CALIFORNIA  (Sacramento)Local: State of CALIFORNIA (en)  (Sacramento)
COLORADO State of COLORADO  (Denver)Local: State of COLORADO (en)  (Denver)
CONNECTICUT State of CONNECTICUT  (Hartford)Local: State of CONNECTICUT (en)  (Hartford)
DELAWARE State of DELAWARE  (Dover)Local: State of DELAWARE (en)  (Dover)
FLORIDA State of FLORIDA  (Tallahassee)Local: State of FLORIDA (en)  (Tallahassee)
GEORGIA State of GEORGIA  (Atlanta)Local: State of GEORGIA (en)  (Atlanta)
IDAHO State of IDAHO  (Boise)Local: State of IDAHO (en)  (Boise)
ILLINOIS State of ILLINOIS  (Springfield)Local: State of ILLINOIS (en)  (Springfield)
INDIANA State of INDIANA  (Indianapolis)Local: State of INDIANA (en)  (Indianapolis)
IOWA State of IOWA  (Des Moines)Local: State of IOWA (en)  (Des Moines)
KANSAS State of KANSAS  (Topeka)Local: State of KANSAS (en)  (Topeka)
KENTUCKY Commonwealth of KENTUCKY  (Frankfort)Local: Commonwealth of KENTUCKY (en)  (Frankfort)
LOUISIANA State of LOUISIANA  (Baton Rouge)Local: State of LOUISIANA (en) + État de LOUISIANE (fr)  (Baton Rouge)
MAINE State of MAINE  (Augusta)Local: State of MAINE (en) + État du MAINE (fr)  (Augusta)
MARYLAND State of MARYLAND  (Annapolis)Local: State of MARYLAND (en)  (Annapolis)
MASSACHUSETTS Commonwealth of MASSACHUSETTS  (Boston)Local: Commonwealth of MASSACHUSETTS (en)  (Boston)
MICHIGAN State of MICHIGAN  (Lansing)Local: State of MICHIGAN (en)  (Lansing)
MINNESOTA State of MINNESOTA  (Saint Paul)Local: State of MINNESOTA (en)  (Saint Paul)
MISSISSIPPI State of MISSISSIPPI  (Jackson)Local: State of MISSISSIPPI (en)  (Jackson)
MISSOURI State of MISSOURI  (Jefferson City)Local: State of MISSOURI (en)  (Jefferson City)
MONTANA State of MONTANA  (Helena)Local: State of MONTANA (en)  (Helena)
NEBRASKA State of NEBRASKA  (Lincoln)Local: State of NEBRASKA (en)  (Lincoln)
NEVADA State of NEVADA  (Carson City)Local: State of NEVADA (en)  (Carson City)
NEW HAMPSHIRE State of NEW HAMPSHIRE  (Concord)Local: State of NEW HAMPSHIRE (en)  (Concord)
NEW JERSEY State of NEW JERSEY  (Trenton)Local: State of NEW JERSEY (en)  (Trenton)
NEW MEXICO State of NEW MEXICO  (Santa Fe New Mexico)Local: State of NEW MEXICO (en) + Estado de NUEVO MÉXICO (es)  (Santa Fe New Mexico)
NEW YORK State of NEW YORK  (Albany)Local: State of NEW YORK (en)  (Albany)
NORTH CAROLINA State of NORTH CAROLINA  (Raleigh)Local: State of NORTH CAROLINA (en)  (Raleigh)
NORTH DAKOTA State of NORTH DAKOTA  (Bismarck)Local: State of NORTH DAKOTA (en)  (Bismarck)
OHIO State of OHIO  (Columbus)Local: State of OHIO (en)  (Columbus)
OKLAHOMA State of OKLAHOMA  (Oklahoma City)Local: State of OKLAHOMA (en)  (Oklahoma City)
OREGON State of OREGON  (Salem)Local: State of OREGON (en)  (Salem)
PENNSYLVANIA Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA  (Harrisburg)Local: Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA (en)  (Harrisburg)
SOUTH CAROLINA State of SOUTH CAROLINA  (Columbia)Local: State of SOUTH CAROLINA (en)  (Columbia)
SOUTH DAKOTA State of SOUTH DAKOTA  (Pierre)Local: State of SOUTH DAKOTA (en)  (Pierre)
TENNESSEE State of TENNESSEE  (Nashville)Local: State of TENNESSEE (en)  (Nashville)
TEXAS State of TEXAS  (Austin)Local: State of TEXAS (en)  (Austin)
UTAH State of UTAH  (Salt Lake City)Local: State of UTAH (en)  (Salt Lake City)
VERMONT State of VERMONT  (Montpelier)Local: State of VERMONT (en)  (Montpelier)
VIRGINIA Commonwealth of VIRGINIA  (Richmond)Local: Commonwealth of VIRGINIA (en)  (Richmond)
WASHINGTON State of WASHINGTON  (Olympia)Local: State of WASHINGTON (en)  (Olympia)
WEST VIRGINIA State of WEST VIRGINIA  (Charleston)Local: State of WEST VIRGINIA (en)  (Charleston)
WISCONSIN State of WISCONSIN  (Madison)Local: State of WISCONSIN (en)  (Madison)
WYOMING State of WYOMING  (Cheyenne)Local: State of WYOMING (en)  (Cheyenne)

4 Assisted Entities

BELGIUM Allied Occupied Territory of Belgium : BELGIAN Government  (Brussels) PM Hubert Pierlot
ICELAND Republic of ICELAND  (Reykjavik) President Sveinn Bjornsson
ITALY Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in the Kingdom of ITALY  (Rome) King Victor Emmanuel III
TUNISIA French Protectorate of TUNISIA  (Tunis) Muhammad VIII Al-Amin Bey

1 Territory in Africa:

AMERICAN AFRICAN METALS AMERICAN AFRICAN METALS Corporation  (Elisabethville)Local: AMERICAN AFRICAN METALS Corporation (en)  (Élisabethville)

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Africa:

RUANDA-URUNDI League of Nations Mandate of RUANDA-URUNDI Province of Belgian Congo  (Usumbura)Local: Mandat de la Société des Nations du RUANDA-URUNDI (fr) + Belgisch Mandaatgebied van ROEANDA-OEROENDI (nl)  (Usumbura)

10 Territories in Americas:

ALASKA Territory of ALASKA  (Juneau)Local: Territory of ALASKA (en)  (Juneau)
AMERICAN BERMUDA American Military Bases in BERMUDA  (Fort Bell)Local: American Military Bases in BERMUDA (en)  (Fort Bell)
COLUMBIA District of COLUMBIA  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: District of COLUMBIA (en)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
DUTCH GUIANA United States Protectorate of DUTCH GUIANA  (Paramaribo)Local: United States Protectorate of DUTCH GUIANA (en) + Verenigde Staten Protectoraat van NEDERLANDS-GUIANA (nl)  (Paramaribo)
GREENLAND United States Protectorate of GREENLAND  (Godthaab)Local: Protectorate of GREENLAND (en) + Protektoratet GRØNLAND (da)  (Godthaab)
GUANTANAMO BAY GUANTANAMO BAY United States Naval Operating Base  (Guantanamo Bay)Local: GUANTANAMO BAY United States Naval Operating Base (en)  (Guantanamo Bay)
INDIANS OF AMERICA Office of Indian Affairs : OIA  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: Office of Indian Affairs : OIA (en)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PUERTO RICO United States Territory of PUERTO RICO  (San Juan Puerto Rico)Local: United States Territory of PUERTO RICO (en)  (San Juan Puerto Rico)
UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS Unincorporated Territory of THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS  (Charlotte Amalie)Local: Unincorporated Territory of THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS (en)  (Charlotte Amalie)

3 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Americas:

CORN ISLANDS Leased Territory of CORN ISLANDS  (Corn Island)Local: Leased Territory of CORN ISLANDS (en) + Territorio de las ISLAS DEL MAÍZ (es)  (Corn Island)
PANAMA CANAL ZONE Panama Canal Company : PANAMA CANAL ZONE Terrritory of the Republic of Panama under the Juridiction of the United States of America  (Balboa Heights)Local: Panama Canal Company : PANAMA CANAL ZONE Terrritory of the Republic of Panama under the Juridiction of the United States of America (en) + Zona del CANAL DE PANAMÁ (es)  (Balboa Heights)

2 Territories in Antarctica:

MARIE BYRD LAND United States Territory of MARIE BYRD LAND  ((Eights Coast))Local: United States Territory of MARIE BYRD LAND (en)  ((Eights Coast))
SOUTH POLE SOUTH POLE Zone  (Polheim)Local: SOUTH POLE Zone (en)  (Polheim)

2 Territories in Europe:

AMERICAN ZONE IN GERMANY American Military Zone in GERMANY  (American Forces in Germany)Local: American Military Zone in GERMANY (en)  (American Forces in Germany)
CAMPIONE United States Occupied Commune of CAMPIONE  (Campione)Local: Comune di CAMPIONE (it) + Commune of CAMPIONE (en)  (Campione)

4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

NORMANDY Canadian Forces in NORMANDY  (Caen)Local: Forces canadiennes en NORMANDIE (fr) + Canadian Forces in NORMANDY (en)  (Caen)
NORTHERN FRANCE Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE  (Paris)Local: Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories in FRANCE (en) + Gouvernement Militaire Allié des Territoires Occupés en FRANCE (fr)  (Paris)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PICARDY British Occupation Zone in PICARDY  (Beauvais)Local: British Occupation Zone in PICARDY (en) + Zone d''occupation britannique en PICARDIE (fr)  (Beauvais)

9 Territories in Oceania:

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS ADMIRALTY ISLANDS Division  (Seeadler Harbor)Local: ADMIRALTY ISLANDS Division (en)  (Seeadler Harbor)
AMERICAN SAMOA United States Naval Station of AMERICAN SAMOA  (Pago Pago)Local: United States Naval Station of AMERICAN SAMOA (en)  (Pago Pago)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND United States CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Port Hueneme)Local: Atoll of CLIPPERTON ISLAND (en)  (Port Hueneme)
GUAM United States Territory of GUAM  (Agana)Local: United States Territory of GUAM (en)  (Agaña)
GUANO ISLANDS GUANO ISLANDS United States Unincorporated Possessions  ((Washington-District of Columbia))Local: GUANO ISLANDS United States Unincorporated Possessions (en)  ((Washington-District of Columbia))
HAWAII Territory of HAWAII  (Honolulu)Local: Territory of HAWAII (en)  (Honolulu)
KIETA United States Military District of KIETA : Northern Solomons Group  (Sohano)Local: United States Military District of KIETA (en)  (Sohano)
MARIANA ISLANDS MARIANA ISLANDS District part of the United States Navy administered Islands of The Pacific Islands  (Garapan on Saipan)Local: MARIANA ISLANDS District (en)  (Garapan on Saipan)
MARSHALL ISLANDS American Occupied MARSHALL ISLANDS  (Ebaye on Kwajalein)Local: American Occupied Islands of MARSHALL ISLANDS (en)  (Ebaye)

8 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Oceania:

AITUTAKI New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI  (Arutanga)Local: New Zealand-American Station of AITUTAKI (en)  (Arutanga)
CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS  (Canton Island)Local: Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS (en)  (Canton Island)
ELLICE ISLANDS American Occupied ELLICE ISLANDS Group  (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti)Local: ELLICE ISLANDS Group (en)  (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti)
FANNING ISLAND Allied Occupied FANNING ISLAND  (English Harbour)Local: Allied Occupied FANNING ISLAND (en)  (English Harbour)
NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA United States Military Occupied NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA  (Madang)Local: United States Military Occupied NORTH-EAST NEW GUINEA (en)  (Madang)
SOUTH EASTERN PAPUA SOUTH EASTERN Division  (Alotau)Local: SOUTH EASTERN Division (en)  (Alotau)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Colony of WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Colonie française des ÎLES WALLIS ET FUTUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Uvéa)

7 Governments in Exile

ASSYRIA Holy Apostolic Catholic ASSYRIAN Church of the East in Exile  (Morton Grove) Catholicos Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII
EUZKADI BASQUE Government in Exile  (New York City) President Jose Antonio de Aguirre y Lecube
FREE ARMENIA Armenian Organizations in Exile : FREE ARMENIA Committee  (New York City) George VI Cheorekdzhian
HABSBURG HABSBURG Monarchy  (Washington-District of Columbia) Archduke Otto of Habsburg-Lorraine
PHILIPPINES IN EXILE PHILIPPINE Commonwealth in Exile  (Washington-District of Columbia) President Sergio Osmena
VIET-MINH League for the Independence of Viet-Nam : VIET MINH  (Chinghsi) Ho Chi Minh

34 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS Military Defence Pact of THE ALLIED POWERS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
BOUNDARY WATERS International Joint Commission : IJC  (Chicago + Sault Sainte Marie)
BRUSA Britain-United States of America Agreement : BRUSA  (Bletchley)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
ECUMENISM Provisional Committee of the World Council of Churches : WCC  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
IHB International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB Specialized Agency  (Monaco)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Washington Conversations on INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Organization : Dumbarton Oaks Conference  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Criminal Police Commission : ICPC  (Berlin)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Lausanne)
MOROCCO-AMERICA MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PACIFIC HALIBUT International Pacific Halibut Commission : IPHC  (Seattle)
PACIFIC SALMON International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission : IPSFC  (Vancouver)
PAN-AMERICAN HEALTH Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PAN-AMERICAN UNION PAN-AMERICAN UNION Bureau  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PCOB Permanent Central Opium Board : PCOB  (Geneva)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
STANDARDS International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations : ISA  (New York City + Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATION International Telecommunication Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS of The Allied Powers  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration : UNRRA  (Washington-District of Columbia)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)
WHALING International Agreement for the Regulation of Whaling : IARW  (London)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ANATAHAN ANATAHAN Island  (Anatahan)
KEALAKEKUA BAY James Cook Monument on KEALAKEKUA BAY  (Kealakekua Bay)
WAKE ISLAND Japan Occupied WAKE ISLAND  (Wake Island)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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