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1900-JAN-01

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Revive China Society : Society for Regenerating CHINA : CHINA IN EXILE (Honolulu)  Sun Yat-Sen
Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire : CHINA (Peking)  Emperor Kwang-Hsu Tsai-Tien

Alternate Entities with similar names

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire
(Peking)

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire De facto Independent

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
Ta CH''ING Ti-Kuo : 大清帝国 (zh)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Kwang-Hsu Tsai-Tien
(ruler of CHINA since 1900-01-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Peking(Pei-Ching)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


CHINA Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire  (Peking)

9 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

HUKWANG Viceroyalty of HUKWANG  (Wuchang)Local: HU-KUANG Sheng : 湖廣省 (zh)  (Wu-Ch''ang)
LIANGKIANG Viceroyalty of LIANGKIANG Province  (Soochow)Local: LIANG-CHIANG Sheng : 連江縣 省 (zh)  (Su-Chou)
LIANGKWANG Viceroyalty of LIANGKWANG Province  (Canton)Local: LIANG-KUANG Sheng : 兩廣省 (zh)  (Kuang-Chou)
MINCHE Viceroyalty of MIN-CHE : Province of Che-Kiang  (Hangchow)Local: MIN-CHE Sheng : Che-Chiang Sheng - 閩浙省 : 浙江省 (zh)  (Hang-Chou)
PEICHIHLI Directly administered Territory of the Viceroyalty of Chihli Honan and Shantung : PEICHIHLI Province  (Paoting)Local: PEI-CHIH-LI Sheng : 北直隶省 (zh)  (Pao-Ting)
SHENKAN Viceroyalty of SHENKAN Province  (Hsian-Foo)Local: SHAN-KAN Sheng : 陝甘省 (zh)  (Hsian-Fu)
SINKIANG Viceroyalty of SINKIANG Province  (Urumtsi)Local: HSIN-CHIANG Sheng : 新疆省 (zh)  (Ti-Hua)
SZECHWAN Viceroyalty of SZECHWAN Province  (Chengtu)Local: SZU-CH''UAN Sheng : 四川省 (zh)  (C''heng-Tu)
YUNKWEI Viceroyalty of YUNKWEI Province  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: YUN-KUEI Sheng : 雲貴省 (zh)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)



3 Assisted Entities

MUSTANG Kingdom of Lo : Kingdom of MUSTANG under Nepalese Suzerainty  (Lo) King Jambian Pelbar
NEPAUL Protectorate of the Kingdom of NEPAUL  (Kathmandu) Maharajah Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah Dev
THIBET Kingdom of THIBET under Sino-Nepalese Suzerainty  (Lhasa) Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso



6 Territories in Asia:

CHAKHAR CHANGYUAN Special Region : Chakhar Eight Banners Territory  (Kalgan)Local: CHANG-YUAN T''e-Ch''ü : 張垣特區 (zh)  (Wan-Ch''üan)
INNER MONGOLIA Leagues of INNER MONGOLIA  (Chihfeng)Local: NEI-MENG-KU Lien-Meng : 內蒙古聯盟 (zh) + ÖVÖR MONGOL Chuulghan : ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ (mn)  (Ch''ih-Feng)
OUTER MONGOLIA Bogd Khanate of OUTER MONGOLIA : Uliastay Province  (Uliastay + Khuree)Local: Men-Ku-Kuo Po-K''o-To Han-Kuo : ULIASSUTAI Sheng - 蒙古國 大蒙古國 : 烏里雅蘇臺城省 (zh) + Bogd Haan MONGOL Uls : ᠪᠥᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (mn)  (Uliassutai + Ikk Khüree)
SUIYUAN Military Territory of SUIYUAN  (Kweihua)Local: SUI-YUAN Chün Ch''ü : 綏遠準出 (zh)  (Kuei-Hua)
TANNU-URIANKHAY Unorganized Autonomous Region of TANNU-URIANKHAY  (Kyzyl)Local: TANG-NU WU-LIANG-HAI : 唐努烏梁海 (zh)  (Kitzule)
TAOHSI MONGOLIA TAOHSI MONGOLIA Region  (Tingyuanying)Local: TAO-HSI MENG-KU Ti-Ch''ü : 桃溪蒙古地區 (zh)  (Ting-Yuan-Ying)

15 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

BHOOTAN British Indian Protectorate of the Regency of BHOOTAN Tributary of Sino-Nepalese Thibet  (Punakha + Thimphu)Local: State of BHOOTAN (en) + Druk Gyal-Khab : DRUK-YUL : འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ : འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ (dz)  (Punakha + Thimphu)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
FUKIEN Japanese Sphere of Influence in FUKIEN Region part of Minche Viceroyalty  (Foochow)Local: FU-CHIEN Ti-Ch''ü : 福建地區 (zh)  (Fu-Chou)
HAINAM ISLAND French Sphere of Influence on HAINAM ISLAND  (Hoi How)Local: HAI-NAN Tao : 海南島 (zh)  (Hoi-Hao)
INNER MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of MANCHURIA  (Aigun)Local: Rossiy SEVERNOY I TSENTRALNOY MANCHZHURII : России СЕВЕРНОЙ И ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ МАНЬЧЖУРИИ (ru) + HEI-LUNG-CHIANG : 黑龍江 (zh)  (Aigunov)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: Internationale Konzession von KULANGSU-INSEL (de) + International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND (en) + Concesión Internacional de ISLA KULANGSU (es) + Concession internationale de l''ÎLE KOULANGSEU (fr) + Concessione internazionale dell''iSOLA KULANGSU (it) + KORONSU-JIMA no Kokusai Sokai : コロンス島の国際租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van KULANGSU EILAND (nl) + Concessão Internacional da ILHA KULANGSU (pt) + Kulan : Mezhdunarodnyy Kontsessiya KULANGYU OSTROVA : Международный Концессия КУЛАНГЮ ОСТРОВА (ru) + KU-LANG-YÜ Kuo-Tsì T''e-Hsü Ching-Ying : 鼓浪嶼國際特許經營 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
KWANGCHOW British Sphere of Influence in KWANGCHOW Prefecture  (Canton)Local: KUANG-CHOU  (Kuang-Chou)
LOWER YANGTZE British Sphere of Influence in LOWER YANGTZE  (Chinkiang)Local: CHANG-CHIANG HSIA-YU Ch''ü : 長江下游區 (zh) + LOWER YANGTZE Zone (en)  (Chinkiang)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Region  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZHURIYA  (Manchzhuriya)
NINGPO Settlement of NINGPO  (Ningpo)Local: Établissement de NING-PO (fr) + NING-PO Chieh-Suan : 寧波結算 (zh)  (Ning-Po)
PEKING LEGATIONS Boxer Rebelion in PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTHERN SHANTUNG German Sphere of Influence of SOUTHERN SHANTUNG  (Linyi)Local: SHAN-TUNG NAN-PU Ou : 山東南部區 (zh) + Gebiet des SÜDLICHEN SCHANTUNG (de)  (Linyi)



2 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


CONFUCIANISM Way of Life Teaching : CONFUCIANISM  (Chufu)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)




Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

THIBET Kingdom of THIBET under Sino-Nepalese Suzerainty  (Lhasa)


Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AIGUN Boxer Rebellion in AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)
AMERICAN TIENTSIN British administered TIENTSIN American Concession Territory  (Tientsin American Concession)
AMOY ISLAND British Concession of AMOY ISLAND  (Siming)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH HANKOW British Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CANTON BAY CANTON BAY Leased Territory  (Chankiang)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHINKIANG British Concession at CHINKIANG  (Chinkiang)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FORMOSA ISLAND Dependency of FORMOSA  (Taihoku)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Japanese Sphere of Influence in FUKIEN Region part of Minche Viceroyalty  (Foochow)
GERMAN HANKOW German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)
GERMAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)
HAINAM ISLAND French Sphere of Influence on HAINAM ISLAND  (Hoi How)
HONGKONG British Crown Colony of HONGKONG  (City of Victoria)
INNER MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of MANCHURIA  (Aigun)
JAPANESE AMOY Japanese Concession at AMOY  (Amoy)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KIAUCHAU German Leased Territory of KIAUCHAU  (Tsingtao)
KIUKIANG British Concession at KIUKIANG  (Kiukiang)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KWANGCHOW British Sphere of Influence in KWANGCHOW Prefecture  (Canton)
KWANTUNG Russian Leased Territory of the Province of KWANTUNG  (Dalny)
LIUKUNG ISLAND AND WEIHAIWEI British Leased Territories of LIUKUNG ISLAND AND WEIHAIWEI  (Port Edward)
LOWER YANGTZE British Sphere of Influence in LOWER YANGTZE  (Chinkiang)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Region  (Manchuria)
MATSU ISLANDS MATSU ISLANDS part of Lienkiang County  (Nankan)
NANKING INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT NANKING General Foreign Settlement  (Nanking International Settlement)
NEWCHWANG British Concession at NEWCHWANG  (Newchwang)
NGOLOK NGOLOK Tribal Region  (Machin)
NINGPO Settlement of NINGPO  (Ningpo)
PACKHOI Concessions of PACKHOI  (Packhoi)
PARACEL ISLANDS PARACEL ISLANDS Group  (Woody Island)
PEKING LEGATIONS Boxer Rebelion in PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)
QUEMOY ISLANDS QUEMOY ISLANDS part of Chinchew County  (Chinsheng)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTHERN SHANTUNG German Sphere of Influence of SOUTHERN SHANTUNG  (Linyi)
WUHU British Concession in WUHU  (Wuhu)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.