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Central Military Government of the Republic of CHINA : United Provinces of China : CHINESE ALLIANCE (Wuchang + Shanghai)  General Li Yuan-Hung
CHINESE Unity League : Chinese Revolutionary Alliance : CHINESE LEAGUE (Wuchang)  Sun Yat-Sen
Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire : CHINA (Peking)  Emperor Hsuan-Tung Pu-Yi

Alternate Entities with similar names

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
Ta CH''ING Ti-Kuo : 大清帝国 (zh)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Hsuan-Tung Pu-Yi
(ruler of CHINA since 1908-12-02)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


CHINA Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire  (Peking)

4 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

FENGTIEN Military Province of FENGTIEN  (Mukden)Local: FENG-T''IEN Sheng : 奉天省 (zh)  (Feng-Tien-Fu)
KIRIN Military Province of KIRIN  (Kirin)Local: CHI-LIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh)  (Chi-Lin)
MANCHURIA Province of HEILUNGKIANG in the Viceroyalty of Manchuria  (Kharbin)Local: HEI-LUNG-CHIANG Sheng : 黑龍江省 (zh)  (Ha''erh-Pin)
PEICHIHLI Directly administered Territory of the Viceroyalty of Chihli Honan and Shantung : PEICHIHLI Province  (Tientsin)Local: PEI-CHIH-LI Sheng : 北直隶省 (zh)  (Tien-Chin)

2 Assisted Entities

BARGUT MONGOLIA Pro-Mongolian BARGUT MONGOLIAN Independent Province  (Khailar) Jasrangiyn Chun Van Damdinsuren
THIBET Occupied Kingdom of THIBET under Chinese Suzerainty  (Lhasa) Gaden Tripa Ngawang Lobsang Gyaltsen Tenpey

7 Territories in Asia:

AMDO AMDO Administrative Region  (Zining)Local: AMDO : ཨ༌མདོ (bo) + AN-TUO Hsien Hsin-Cheng : 安多縣的行政區 (zh)  (Zining)
CHAKHAR CHANGYUAN Special Region : Chakhar Eight Banners Territory  (Kalgan)Local: CHANG-YUAN T''e-Ch''ü : 張垣特區 (zh)  (Wan-Ch''üan)
ILI Governorate-General of ILI  (Suidun)Local: YI-LI  (Sui-Ting)
INNER MONGOLIA Leagues of INNER MONGOLIA  (Chihfeng)Local: NEI-MENG-KU Lien-Meng : 內蒙古聯盟 (zh) + ÖVÖR MONGOL Chuulghan : ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ (mn)  (Ch''ih-Feng)
OUTER MONGOLIA Bogd Khanate of OUTER MONGOLIA : Uliastay Province  (Uliastay + Khuree)Local: Men-Ku-Kuo Po-K''o-To Han-Kuo : ULIASSUTAI Sheng - 蒙古國 大蒙古國 : 烏里雅蘇臺城省 (zh) + Bogd Haan MONGOL Uls : ᠪᠥᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (mn)  (Uliassutai + Ikk Khüree)
SUIYUAN Military Territory of SUIYUAN  (Kweihua)Local: SUI-YUAN Chün Ch''ü : 綏遠準出 (zh)  (Kuei-Hua)
TANNU-URIANKHAY Unorganized Autonomous Region of TANNU-URIANKHAY  (Kyzyl)Local: TANG-NU WU-LIANG-HAI : 唐努烏梁海 (zh)  (Kitzule)

3 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZHURIYA  (Manchzhuriya)
NORTHERN MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of NORTHERN MANCHURIA : Amour River Province  (Aigun)Local: PRIAMURYE Krai : ПРИАМУРЬЕ край (ru) + HEI-LUNG-CHIANG Sheng : 黑龍江省 (zh)  (Aihun)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)

5 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

CONFUCIANISM Way of Life Teaching : CONFUCIANISM  (Chufu)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Saint Petersburg)
OPIUM International Opium Commission : IOC  (Shanghai International Settlement)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)

Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

BARGUT MONGOLIA Pro-Mongolian BARGUT MONGOLIAN Independent Province  (Khailar)
CHINESE ALLIANCE Central Military Government of the Republic of CHINA : United Provinces of China  (Wuchang + Shanghai)
CHINESE LEAGUE CHINESE Unity League : Chinese Revolutionary Alliance  (Wuchang)
KWANGTUNG Military Province of KWANGTUNG  (Canton)
SZECHWAN Great Han Military Government of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu)
THIBET Occupied Kingdom of THIBET under Chinese Suzerainty  (Lhasa)
YUNNAN Military Province of YUNNAN : Yunnan Clique  (Yunnan-Fu)

Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)
AMOY ISLAND British Concession of AMOY ISLAND  (Siming)
ANHWEI ANHWEI Province  (Hwaining)
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Austro-Hungarian Concession  (Tientsin Austro-Hungarian Concession)
BELGIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Belgian Concession  (Tientsin Belgian Concession)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH HANKOW British Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CHANGSHA CHANGSHA General Foreign Settlement  (Changsha Settlement)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)
CHEKIANG Military Province of CHEKIANG  (Hangchow)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Russian Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHINKIANG British Concession at CHINKIANG  (Chinkiang)
CHOUTSUN CHOUTSUN Foreign Settlement  (Choutsun)
CHUNGKING SZECHWAN Military Government at Chungking  (Chungking)
CHWANPIEN CHWANPIEN Special Administrative District  (Tachienlu)
FORMOSA ISLAND Dependency of FORMOSA  (Taihoku)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Military Province of FUKIEN  (Foochow)
GERMAN HANKOW German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)
GERMAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)
HAINAN HAINAN Circuit  (Hai Hao)
HONGKONG British Crown Colony of HONGKONG  (City of Victoria)
HUEICHOW HUEICHOW Revolutionary Army  (Canton)
HUNAN Military Province of HUNAN  (Changsha)
HUPEH Military Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE CHUNGKING Japanese Concession at CHUNGKING  (Chungking Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KIANGSI Military Province of KIANGSI  (Nanchang)
KIANGSU Military Province of KIANGSU  (Soochow)
KIAOCHAU German Leased Territory of KIAO-CHAU  (Tsingtao)
KIUKIANG British Concession at KIUKIANG  (Kiukiang)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KUMUL KUMUL Khanate : Vassal Principality of Kumul  (Khamil)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Fort Bayard)
KWANGSI Military Province of KWANGSI  (Kweichow)
KWANTUNG Japanese Military Administration of KWANTUNG Leased Territory  (Port Arthur)
KWEICHOW Military Province of KWEICHOW  (Kweiyang)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)
MATSU ISLANDS MATSU ISLANDS part of Lienkiang County  (Nankan)
NANKING INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT NANKING General Foreign Settlement  (Nanking International Settlement)
NINGSIA Warlordship of NINGSIA  (Ningsia)
NORTHERN MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of NORTHERN MANCHURIA : Amour River Province  (Aigun)
PAKHOI Concessions of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)
QUEMOY ISLANDS QUEMOY ISLANDS part of Chinchew County  (Chinsheng)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN KHARBIN Russian Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Russian Concession  (Tientsin Russian Concesion)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHANTUNG Military Province of SHANTUNG  (Tsinan-Fu)
SHENKAN SHENKAN Province  (Sian)
TSINANFU TSINANFU Foreign Settlement  (Tsinan-Fu)
WEIHAIWEI British Leased Territory of WEIHAIWEI  (Port Edward)
WEIHSIEN WEIHSIEN Foreign Settlement  (Wei)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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