- Zones:

MANCHURIAN GUERILLA (Northeast Anti-Japanese Army)  Rebellion NORTHEAST Anti-Japanese United Army : Kim Il-Sung
MANCHURIA (Hsinking)  De facto Semi-Independent Manchu State : MANCHUKUO : Henry Pu-Yi

Other Entities with similar names

(Tokyo) - (Hsinking) -

Manchu State : MANCHUKUO

Flag or logo since 1932-03-09
MANSHŪ-Koku : 満州国 (ja) + MAN-CHU Kuo : 满洲国 (zh) + MANJU Gurun : ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ (mnc) De facto Semi-Independent
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Hirohito
(ruler of JAPAN since 1926-12-25)

Henry Pu-Yi
(ruler of MANCHURIA since 1932-03-09)
Capital:Hsinking - (Hsin-Ching)
Official languages: Japanese (ja) . Manchu (mnc) . Chinese (zh) .


MANCHURIA Great Manchu State : MANCHUKUO  (Hsinking)

8 Mainland Divisions:

HEIHO HEIHO Province  (Heiho)Local: HEI-HO Sheng : 瑷珲 省 (zh) + KUROKAWA Ichi : 黒河市 (ja) + HEI-HO Anto : ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ (mnc)  (Hei-Ho)
HSINGAN HSINGAN Province  (Khailar)Local: HSING''AN Anto  (Hulun)
HSINKING HSINKING Special Municipality : New Capital  (Hsinking)Local: HSIN-CHING  (Hsin-Ching)
KHARBIN KHARBIN Special Municipality  (Kharbin)Local: HA''ERH-PIN Shih : 哈爾濱市 (zh)  (Ha''erh-Pin)
KIRIN KIRIN Province  (Kirin)Local: CHI-LIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh) + KIRIN Anto : 吉林省 (ja) + GIRIN Anto : ᡤᡳᡵᡳᠨ (mnc)  (Chi-Lin)
LIAONING LIAONING Province  (Liaoyang)Local: LIAO-NING Sheng : 遼寧省 (zh) + RYŌNEI-Shō : 遼寧省 (ja) + LIAO-NING Anto (mnc)  (Liao-Yang)
LUNGKIANG LUNGKIANG Province  (Tsitsihar)Local: LUNG-CHIANG Anto  (Chi-Chi-Ha''erh)
MUKDEN MUKDEN Special Municipality : Shenyang  (Mukden)Local: MUKDEN  (Mukden)

1 Assisted Entity

EASTERN PROVINCES EASTERN PROVINCES Special Administrative Region  (Kharbin) Henry Pu-Yi

3 Territories:

KWANTUNG KWANTUNG Leased Territory  (Port Arthur)Local: KANTO Shiyuu : 関東州 (ja) + KUAN-TUNG Chou : 關東州 (zh)  (Ryojun)
SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE South Manchuria Railway Company : SOUTH MANCHURIAN RAILWAY ZONE  (Dairen)Local: MINAMI MANSHU TETSUDO Kabushiki-gaisha : みなみ まんしゅ てつど かぶしきーがいしゃ (ja) + MANG-NAN T''IEH-TAO Chu-Shih Huei-She I-Sheng : 芒南鐵道株式會社醫生 (zh)  (Dairen)
TSIHSI Japanese Colony of TSIHSI  (Tsikuan)Local: KEISEISHI Chiiki : 鶏西市 地域 (ja)  (Keiseishi)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

CHINA National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Kuomintang Government  (Nanking)
EASTERN PROVINCES EASTERN PROVINCES Special Administrative Region  (Kharbin)
KUMUL KUMUL Khanate in rebellion  (Khamil)
KWANGTUNG Autonomous Warlordship of the Government of KWANGTUNG Province : Kwangtung Clique  (Chenkiang)
KWANKAI Government of Kwangsi : KWANKAI  (Nanning)
KWEICHOW Autonomous Warlordship of KWEICHOW Province  (Kweiyang)
MA Three Mas of the Northwest Sultanates : MA Clique  (Lanchow)
MANCHURIAN GUERILLA NORTHEAST Anti-Japanese United Army  (Northeast Anti-Japanese Army)
SHANSI Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu)
SHANTUNG Autonomous Warlordship of SHANTUNG Province : Shantung Clique  (Tsinan)
SINKIANG Warlordship of the Autonomous Province of SINKIANG : Tungan Government of the Sinkiang Clique  (Tihwa)
SOVIET CHINA CHINESE Soviet Republic  (Juichin)
SZECHWAN Independent Government of SZECHWAN Province Area : Szechwan Clique  (Chengtu)
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET  (Lhasa)
UIGHURISTAN Region of UIGHURISTAN in rebellion  (Kashgar)
WEIHAIWEI WEIHAIWEI Special Administrative Region  (Weihaiwei)
YUNNAN Autonomous Warlordship of YUNNAN Province : Yunnan Clique  (Kunming)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AIGUN Soviet Union Concession of AIGUN  (Aigun)
AMERICAN TIENTSIN American Permanent Base of TIENTSIN  (Tientsin American Base)
ANHWEI Nationalist Province of ANHWEI  (Hwaining)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CHEKIANG Nationalist Province of CHEKIANG  (Hangchow)
CHIUNGYA Hainan Soviet : CHIUNGYA Soviet  (Haikou)
CHUNGKING CHUNGKING Special Municipality  (Chungking)
CHWANPIEN CHWANPIEN Special Administrative District  (Dardo)
FORMOSAN ABORIGINES FORMOSAN Aboriginal Peoples : Bunun Rebellion of Tafen  (Hualien Harbor)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment of Odent in CHUNGKING  (Odent)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN FUKIEN Province  (Foochow)
GOLOK GOLOK Prefecture : Ngolok Tribal Region in Rebellion  (Machin)
GREATER SHANGHAI Chinese City Government of the Special Municipality of GREATER SHANGHAI  (Shanghai)
HANKOW FIRST AREA HANKOW First Special Area  (Hankow)
HANKOW SECOND AREA HANKOW Second Special Area  (Kianghan)
HANKOW THIRD AREA HANKOW Third Special Area  (Kiaokow)
HONAN Nationalist Province of HONAN  (Kaifeng)
HONG KONG British Crown Colony of HONG KONG  (Victoria City)
HONGKEW Japanese District of HONGKEW  (Hongkew)
HOPEH Nationalist Province of HOPEH  (Tsingyuan)
HSIANG-E-KAN HUNAN-HUPEH-KIANGSI Soviet : Hsiang-E-Kan Soviet  (Yueyang + Hsienning + Kiukiang + I-Chun)
HSIKING HSIKING Special Municipality  (Hsiking)
HUNGHU HUNGHU Soviet  (Hunghu)
HUPEH Nationalist Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE KHARBIN Japanese Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
JOSUTU Tumed JOSUTU League  (Chaoyang)
JUU UDA JUU UDA League  (Chihfeng)
KANSU KANSU Province  (Lanchow)
KIANGSU KIANGSU Province  (Chinkiang)
KIHIA KIHIA District  (Kihia)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KWANGCHOW KWANGCHOW Special Municipality  (Canton)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Fort Bayard)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
NANKING NANKING Special Municipality  (Nanking)
NINGSIA NINGSIA Province  (Yinchuan)
ORDOS ORDOS League  (Ordos)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)
PEIPING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEIPING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peiping Legation Quarter)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHENSI SHENSI Province  (Paoki)
SILINGOL SILINGOL League  (Silinhot)
SOUTHERN KIANGSI CHINESE Soviet Republic in Southern Kiangsi  (Juichin)
SUIYUAN Shansian Province of SUIYUAN  (Kweisui)
TAIWAN Government-General of TAIWAN : Colonial Government of Formosa  (Taihoku)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)
TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Special Municipality  (Tientsin)
TSINGHAI Tibetan Occupied Sultanate of TSINGHAI Province  (Sining)
TSINGTAO TSINGTAO Special Municipality  (Tsingtao)
ULANCHAB ULANCHAB League  (Wulanhua)
WUHAN Hankow Special Municipality : WUHAN City administered by Hupei  (Hankow)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Martucci Dave, DMA (US). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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