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Great Manchu Empire : MANCHUKUO

Great Manchu Empire : MANCHUKUO De facto Independent

Flag or logo since 1934-03-09
Dai MANSHŪ Teikoku : 大満州帝国 (ja) + Ta MAN-CHU Ti-Kuo : 大满洲帝国 (zh) + Amba MANJU Gurun : ᠠᠮᠪᠠ᠋ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ (mnc)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Pu-Yi
(ruler of MANCHURIA since 1932-03-09)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


MANCHURIA Great Manchu Empire : MANCHUKUO  (Hsinking)

12 Mainland Divisions:

ANTUNG ANTUNG Province  (Antung)Local: AN-TUNG Anto  (An-Tung)
HEIHO HEIHO Province  (Heiho)Local: HEI-HO Sheng : 瑷珲 省 (zh) + KUROKAWA Ichi : 黒河市 (ja) + HEI-HO Anto : ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ (mnc)  (Hei-Ho)
HSINGAN HSINGAN Consolidated Province  (Khailar)Local: HSING''AN Anto  (Hulun)
HSINKING HSINKING Special Municipality : New Capital  (Hsinking)Local: HSIN-CHING  (Hsin-Ching)
JEHOL JEHOL Province  (Jehol)Local: JE-HO Sheng : 熱河省 (zh) + REHE Anto (mnc) + NEKKA-Shō : 熱河省 (ja)  (Rehe)
KHARBIN KHARBIN Special Municipality  (Kharbin)Local: HA''ERH-PIN Shih : 哈爾濱市 (zh)  (Ha''erh-Pin)
KINCHOW KINCHOW Province  (Kinchow)Local: CHIN-CHOU Anto  (Chin-Chou)
KIRIN KIRIN Province  (Kirin)Local: CHI-LIN Sheng : 吉林省 (zh) + KIRIN Anto : 吉林省 (ja) + GIRIN Anto : ᡤᡳᡵᡳᠨ (mnc)  (Chi-Lin)
LIAONING LIAONING Province  (Liaoyang)Local: LIAO-NING Sheng : 遼寧省 (zh) + RYŌNEI-Shō : 遼寧省 (ja) + LIAO-NING Anto (mnc)  (Liao-Yang)
LUNGKIANG LUNGKIANG Province  (Tsitsihar)Local: LUNG-CHIANG Anto  (Chi-Chi-Ha''erh)
MUKDEN MUKDEN Special Municipality : Shenyang  (Mukden)Local: MUKDEN  (Mukden)
TUNHWA TUNHWA Province  (Tunhwa)Local: T''UNG-HUA Anto  (T''ung-Hua)

1 Territory in Asia:

CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Manchu Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)Local: TUNG TSING T''IEH-LU Ch''ü : 東清鐵路區 (zh)  (Ha''erh-Pin)

2 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

AXIS POWERS Axis Countries : AXIS PACT  (Tokyo)

Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

CHINA National Government of the Republic of CHINA : Kuomintang Government  (Chungking)
COMMUNIST CHINA Communist Party of CHINA in Second United Front Alliance with Kuomintang : Chinese Red Army  (Yenan)
INNER MONGOLIA MONGOLIAN Autonomous Federation : Inner Mongolia Federation  (Kalgan)
MA Three Mas of the Northwest Sultanates : MA Clique  (Sining)
SHANSI Autonomous Warlordship of SHANSI Province : Shansi Clique  (Taiyuan-Yangchu)
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET  (Lhasa)
YUNNAN Autonomous Warlordship of YUNNAN Province : Yunnan Clique  (Kunming)

Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AIGUN Soviet Union Concession of AIGUN  (Aigun)
AMOY Enclave of AMOY Special Municipality  (Siming)
ANHWEI Nationalist Province of ANHWEI  (Hwaining)
BORTALA Autonomous Prefecture of BORTALA  (Bole)
CHANAN Autonomous SOUTH CHAHAR Province : Chanan Province  (Kalgan)
CHEKIANG CHEKIANG Province  (Hangchow)
CHUNGKING CHUNGKING Special Municipality  (Chungking)
DAIREN DAIREN Special Municipality  (Port Arthur)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Japanese Occupied Municipal Council of French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession administered by the Chinese National Government  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Nationalist Province of FUKIEN  (Foochow)
GOLOK GOLOK Prefecture : Ngolok Tribal Region in Rebellion  (Machin)
HAINAN HAINAN Administrative Committee  (Sanya)
HANKOW HANKOW Special Municipality  (Hankow)
HONG KONG HONG KONG Occupied Territory  (Victoria City)
HUHEHOT Special Municipality of HUHEHOT  (Huhehot)
HUPEH Nationalist Province of HUPEH  (Wuchang)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN Japanese Occupied TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE KHARBIN Japanese Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
KANSU KANSU Province  (Lanchow)
KWANGCHOW KWANGCHOW Special Municipality  (Canton)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Chankiang)
KWANGTUNG Nationalist KWANGTUNG Province  (Kukong)
KWANTUNG Japanese Leased Territory of KWANTUNG  (Port Arthur)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
NANKING NANKING Special Municipality  (Nanking)
NINGSIA NINGSIA Province  (Yinchuan)
NORTH CHINA NORTH CHINA Political Affairs Commission  (Peking)
OCCUPIED CHINA Japanese Occupied Territories in CHINA  (Nanking)
ORDOS ORDOS League  (Ordos)
PAOTOW PAOTOW Special Municipality  (Paotow)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Japanese Controlled PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)
PRATAS ISLANDS United Nations Mandate of PRATAS ISLANDS part of Kwangtung Province  (Tungsha)
SHENSI Nationalist SHENSI Province  (Paoki)
SIAN SIAN Special Municipality  (Sian)
SIKANG SIKANG Province  (Kangting)
SILINGOL SILINGOL League  (Silinhot)
SINKIANG Chinese Autonomous Province of SINKIANG  (Tihwa)
SUIYUAN SUIYUAN Province  (Linho)
SZECHWAN Nationalist Province of SZECHWAN  (Chengtu)
TAIWAN Government-General of TAIWAN : Colonial Government of Formosa part of Japan Empire  (Taihoku)
TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Special Municipality  (Tientsin)
TSINGHAI Sultanate of TSINGHAI Province  (Sining)
TSINGTAO TSINGTAO Special Municipality  (Tsingtao)
TSINING Soviet Union Occupied TSINING County  (Tsikuan)
ULANCHAB ULANCHAB League  (Wulanhua)
WEIHAI WEIHAI Special Region  (Weihai)
YUYANG YUYANG Special District : Eighth Administrative Region of Szechwan  (Yuyang)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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