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1945-OCT-15

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Provisional Government of the French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

Provisional Government of the French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire SDN Member

Flag or logo since 1944-08-25
Gouvernement provisoire de la République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr)
Emblem or Symbol

General Charles de Gaulle
(ruler of FRANCE since 1940-06-22)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Paris(Paris)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


FRANCE Provisional Government of the FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

ALSACE-MOSELLE Departments of ALSACE-MOSELLE  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)Local: Départements d''ALSACE-MOSELLE (fr)  (Colmar + Metz + Strasbourg)
METROPOLITAN FRANCE European Territory of the French Republic : Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Territoire européen de la République française : Départements de la MÉTROPOLE  (Paris)



9 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Ramon Iglesias Navarri
AUSTRIA Allied Control Council of the Provisional Government of the Republic of AUSTRIA  (Vienna) President Karl Renner
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation under French Suzerainty  (Abalessa) Amenokal Meslar ag Amayas
LEBANON LEBANESE Republic  (Beirut) President Bechara El-Khoury
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protectorate]  (Monaco) Prince Louis II
MOROCCO Protectorates in the Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO  (Rabat) Sultan Muhammad V
SAAR Government of the French SAAR Protectorate  (Saarbrucken) Hans Neureuter
TANGIER TANGIER International Zone  (Tangier) Sultan Muhammad V
TUNISIA French Protectorate of TUNISIA  (Tunis) Muhammad VIII Al-Amin Bey



19 Territories:

FEZZAN-GHADAMES Protectorate of the French Military Territory of FEZZAN-GHADAMES  (Sabha)Local: Territoire militaire français du FEZZAN-GHADAMÈS (fr)  (Sebha)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA Federation  (Brazzaville)Local: Fédération d''AFRIQUE-ÉQUATORIALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Brazzaville)
FRENCH GUIANA AND ININI Territories of FRENCH GUIANA Colony and ININI Territory  (Cayenne)Local: Territoires de la Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE et du Territoire de l''ININI (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Dakar)
FRENCH ZONE IN GERMANY French Occupation Zone in GERMANY  (Baden-Baden)Local: Zone d''occupation française en ALLEMAGNE (fr) + Französische Besatzungszone in DEUTSCHLAND (de)  (Baden-Baden)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE City of Paris Property of HAUTEVILLE HOUSE  (Victor Hugo Home)Local: Domaine de HAUTEVILLE HOUSE Propriété de la Ville de Paris (fr)  (Maison de Victor Hugo)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : National Domain of France in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye Saint Mary of the Resurrection of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Tombeau des Rois + Monastère d''Eléona + Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d''Abou Gosh)
MARTINIQUE French Colony of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Colonie française de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Papeete)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Pape''ete)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

19 Condominiums:

ADELIE LAND French Sector of ADELIE LAND  ((Tananarive))Local: Secteur français de la TERRE ADÉLIE (fr)  ((Tananarive))
BERLIN Allied Occupied City of Berlin : Municipal Government of BERLIN City  (Berlin-Dahlem)Local: BERLIN Stadtverwaltung (de) + Municipal Government of BERLIN (en) + Gouvernement Municipal de BERLIN (fr) + BERLIN Munitsipal''nogo Pravitel''stva : БЕРЛИН Муниципального Правительства (ru)  (Berlin-Dahlem)
FRENCH CAMEROON League of Nations Mandate of the Autonomous Territory of FRENCH CAMEROON  (Duala)Local: Territoire autonome du CAMEROUN (fr)  (Douala)
FRENCH INDOCHINA Allied Occupied Territory of FRENCH INDOCHINA  (Saigon)Local: Fédération INDOCHINOISE (fr) + INDOCHINESE Federation (en)  (Saïgon)
FRENCH LEVANT Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : FRENCH LEVANT  ((Beirut))Local: Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban : LEVANT FRANÇAIS (fr) + Residency for Lebanon and Syria : FRENCH LEVANT (en)  ((Beyrouth))
FRENCH MOROCCO French Protectorate in the Sharifi Empire : French Protectorate of MOROCCO  (Rabat)Local: Protectorat français dans l''Empire chérifien : Protectorat français au MAROC (fr) + Himaïet Fransa fi el-MAGHREB : حماية فرنسا للمغرب (ar)  (Rabat)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TOGO FRENCH TOGO Territory  (Lome)Local: Territoire du TOGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Lomé)
FRENCH ZONE IN AUSTRIA French Occupation Zone in AUSTRIA  (Vienna-Funfhaus)Local: Zone d''occupation française en AUTRICHE  (Vienne-Funfhaus)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of FRENCH MADAGASCAR  (Tananarive)Local: Gouvernorat-général de MADAGASCAR FRANÇAISE (fr) + General Governorate of FRENCH MADAGASCAR (en)  (Tananarive)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)Local: Colonie française de NOUVELLE-CALÉDONIE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Nouméa)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Colony of WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Colonie française des ÎLES WALLIS ET FUTUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Uvéa)

Dependent Protectorates:

BAGHIRMI French Protectorate of BAGHIRMI Sultanate  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
DASSA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASSA  (Dassa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba DASSA (ibb)  (Dassa)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Protectorate of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES  (Ain Sefra + Ghardaia + Wargla + Tuggurt)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Aïn Séfra + Ghardaïa + Ouargla + Touggourt)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
UPPER IVORY COAST Ivory Coast Directly administered Residency of UPPER IVORY COAST Region  (Wagadugu)Local: Région de la HAUTE-CÔTE D''IVOIRE (fr)  (Ouagadougou)



7 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Antoine III
CATALONIA IN EXILE Catalan Government in Exile : Generality of CATALONIA  (Perpignan) Josep Irla
COSSACKIA COSSACK National Liberation Movement  (Paris) Ignat Arkhipovich Bilyi
EUZKADI BASQUE Government in Exile  (Paris) President Jose Antonio de Aguirre y Lecube
GEORGIA IN EXILE National Government of GEORGIA IN EXILE  (Leuville on Orge) Noe Zhordania
HABSBURG HABSBURG Monarchy  (Poecking + Lekitto + Bordeaux) Archduke Otto of Habsburg-Lorraine
WHITE RUSSIA WHITE EMIGRES Organizations Outside Russia  (Istanbul + Paris) Metropolitan Anastasius



Military entities abroad or locally shared:

BORA BORA American Base of BORA BORA  (Vaitape)Local: Base américaine de BORA-BORA (fr)  (Vaïtapé)
FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)
NOUASSEUR NOUASSEUR Air Base  (Nouasseur)Local: NOUASSEUR Air Base (en) + Base aérienne de NOUASSEUR (fr)  (Nouasseur)
RAYAK RAYAK Air Base  (Rayak)Local: Base aérienne de RAYAK (fr) + RAYAK Air Base (en) + Kaidat RAYAK al-Jawiya : قاعدة رياق الجوية (ar)  (Rayak)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)


41 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS Military Defence Pact of THE ALLIED POWERS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CTO Communications and Transit Organisation : CTO  (Geneva)
EFO Economic and Financial Organization of the League of Nations : EFO  (Brusells)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-SOVIET ALLIANCE Treaty of Friendship between France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : FRANCO-SOVIET Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
IGCR High Commission for Refugees : Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees : IGCR  (Berne)
IHB International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB Specialized Agency  (Monaco)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Washington Conversations on INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Organization  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTERNATIONAL POLICE International Criminal Police Commission : ICPC  (Berlin)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS League of Nations Covenant : LON  (Geneva)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
LNHO League of Nations Health Organization : LNHO  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Lausanne)
MOROCCO-AMERICA MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)
OIC Organization of Intellectual Cooperation : OIC  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PAN-AMERICAN HEALTH Pan-American Sanitary Bureau : PASB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA PANEUROPEAN Movement : international Committees for the European Federation  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice : PCIJ  (The Hague)
PCNB Permanent Central Narcotics Board : PCNB  (Geneva)
PICAO Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization : PICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
STANDARDS United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee : UNSCC  (London)
TELECOMMUNICATION International Telecommunication Union : ITU  (Berne)
TOURISM International Union of National Tourist Propaganda Organizations : IUNTPO  (The Hague)
UNCIO United Nations Conference on International Organization : UNCIO  (San Francisco)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration : UNRRA  (Washington-District of Columbia)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADELIE LAND French Sector of ADELIE LAND  ((Tananarive))
ALO Tua Kingdom : Traditional Kingdom of ALO  (Malae)
AMSTERDAM ISLAND French Possession of AMSTERDAM ISLAND  (New Amsterdam)
BASSAS DA INDIA French Dependency of BASSAS DA INDIA  (Bassas da India)
BORA BORA American Base of BORA BORA  (Vaitape)
BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the BRITISH CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Bayeux)
CANAQUIA CANAQUE Chiefdoms  (Noumea)
CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS Dependencies of CHESTERFIELD ISLANDS  (Chesterfield)
CROZET ISLANDS French Nature Reserve of CROZET ISLANDS  (Crozet)
DREHU DREHU Traditional Area  (We on Lifu)
EUROPA ISLAND French Dependency of EUROPA ISLAND  (Europa)
FRENCH AUSTRAL ISLANDS French Possession of AUSTRAL ISLANDS  (Port Aux Francais)
GLORIOSO ISLANDS French Dependency of GLORIOSO ISLANDS  (Greater Glorioso)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
HORN ISLANDS HORN ISLANDS Group : Futuna  (Malae + Leava)
HUNTER ISLAND Dependency of HUNTER ISLAND  (-)
HUON AND SURPRISE ISLANDS Dependencies of HUON AND SURPRISE ISLANDS : Atolls of D''Entrecasteaux Reefs  (Huon)
ISLE OF PINES French Possession of ISLE OF PINES : High Chiefdom of Kunie  (Gadji)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Colony of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Juan de Nova)
KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO French Possession of KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO  (Port Aux Francais)
LOYALTY ISLANDS Dependencies of LOYALTY ISLANDS  (We on Lifu)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Dependency of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
NENGONE NENGONE Traditional Area  (Tadin)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)
OMAHA BEACH American Temporary Cemetery on European Soil : AMERICAN CEMETERY in Omaha Beach  (Vierville)
OUEN ISLAND OUEN ISLAND Chiefdom  (Ouara)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
SAINT PAUL AND AMSTERDAM ISLANDS French Colony of SAINT PAUL AND AMSTERDAM ISLANDS  (New Amsterdam)
SAINT PAUL ISLAND French Possession of SAINT PAUL ISLAND  (Saint Paul)
SIGAVE Traditional Kingdom of SIGAVE  (Leava)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
UVEA Traditional Kingdom of UVEA  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
VIMY MEMORIAL Canadian National VIMY MEMORIAL  (Vimy)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Colony of WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
WALLIS ARCHIPELAGO WALLIS ARCHIPELAGO Group  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)
WALPOLE ISLAND Dependency of WALPOLE ISLAND  (Walpole)
WALPOLE MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Dependencies of WALPOLE MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS  (Walpole)
YAI YAI Traditional Area  (Fayawe)

Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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