Soviet Union 1991-NOV-30 - ethnia.org -
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1991-NOV-30


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR
(Moscow)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR

Flag or logo since 1980-08-15*
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik : SSSR – Союз Советских Социалистических Республик : CCCP (ru) + Sovet Sosialist Respublikaları İttifaqı : SSRİ – Совет Сосиалист Республикалары Иттифагы : ССРИ (az) + Sayuz Savyetskikh Satsyyalistychnykh Respublik : SSSR – Саюз Савецкіх Сацыялістычных Рэспублік : СССР (be) + Khor´hr´dayin Soc´ialistakan Hanrapetut´yunner´i Miut´yun : KSHM – Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետությունների Միություն : ԽՍՀՄ (hy) + Sabch´ota sotsialist´uri resp´ublik´ebis k´avshiri : SSRK – საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკების კავშირი : სსრკ (ka) + Sovettık Sotsialistık Respublikalar Odağy : SSRO – Советтік Социалистік Республикалар Одағы : ССРО (kk) + Sovettik Sotsialisttik Respublikalar Soyuzu : SSRS – Советтик Социалисттик Республикалар Союзу : ССРС (ky) + Uniunea Republicilor Sovietice Socialiste : URSC – Униуня Републичилор Советиче Сочиалисте : УРСС (mo) + Ittihodi Çumhurihoji Şūraviji Sosialistī : IÇŞS – Иттиҳоди Ҷумҳуриҳои Шӯравии Сосиалистӣ : ИҶШС (tg) + Sowet Sosialistik Respublikalary Soýuzy : SSRS – Совет Социалистик Республикалары Союзы : ССРС (tk) + Soyuz Radyansʹkykh Sotsialistychnykh Respublik : SRSR – Союз Радянських Соціалістичних Республік : СРСР (uk) + Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikalari Ittifoqi : SSRI – Совет Социалистик Республикалари Иттифоқи : ССРИ (uz) UNO Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Mikhail Gorbachev
(ruler of SOVIET UNION since 1991-09-01)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Moscow
(Moskva)
Official & national languages: Azeri (az) . Bielorussian (be) . Armenian (hy) . Georgian (ka) . Kazakh (kk) . Kirghiz (ky) . Moldavian Romanian (mo) . Russian (ru) . Tajik Persian (tg) . Turkmen (tk) . Ukrainian (uk) . Uzbek (uz) .

Mainland:


SOVIET UNION Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR  (Moscow)


23 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

BASHKIRIA Sovereign State of the BASHKIR Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ufa) Murtaza Rakhimov
BURYATIA Sovereign State of the BURYAT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ulan-Ude) Leonid Potapov
CHERKESSIA Republic of CHERKESSIA  (Kavkazsky) Cherkess Congress
CHUVASHIA Sovereign State of the CHUVASH Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Cheboksary) Edouard Kubarev
DAGHESTAN Sovereign State of DAGHESTAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Makhachkala) Magomedali Magomedov
GAGAUZIA GAGAUZ Soviet Socialist Republic [Unrecognized]  (Comrat) Stepan Topal
KABARDINO-BALKARIA Sovereign State of the KABARDINO-BALKAR Soviet Socialist Republic  (Nalchik) Khachim Karmokov
KALMYKIA Sovereign State of the KALMYK Soviet Socialist Republic  (Elista) Vladimir Basanov
KARACHAY KARACHAY Republic  (Karachayevsk) Muhammad Bidjiev
KARACHEVO-CHERKESSIA Sovereign State of KARACHEVO-CHERKESS Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Cherkessk-Batalpashink) Vladimir Khubiyev
KARAKALPAKSTAN Sovereign State of the KARAKALPAK Soviet Republic  (Nukus) Dauletbay Shamshetov
KARELIA Sovereign State of the KARELIAN Soviet Socialist Republic  (Petrozavodsk) Viktor Stepanov
KAZAKHSTAN Sovereign State of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic : KSSR  (Alma-Ata a) President Nursultan Nazarbayev
KHAKASSIA Sovereign State of the KHAKASS Soviet Socialist Republic  (Abakan) Vladimir Shtygashev
KOMIA Sovereign State of the KOMI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Syktyvkar) Yuri Spiridonov
MORDOVIA MORDOVIA Republic  (Saransk) Nikolay Biryukov
NORTH OSSETIA Sovereign State of the NORTH OSSETIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Vladikavkaz) Akhsarbek Galazov
RUSSIA Sovereign State of the RUSSIAN Republic  (Moscow) President Boris Yeltsin
TUVA Sovereign State of the TUVINIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kyzyl) Kaadyr-Ool Bicheldey
UDMURTIA UDMURT Sovereign State  (Izhevsk) Valentin Tubylov
UPPER ALTAY UPPER ALTAY Soviet Socialist Republic  (Gorno-Altaysk) Valery Chaptynov
UPPER KUBAN UPPER KUBAN Cossack Republic  (Cherkessk-Batalpashinsk) Upper Kuban Cossacks
YAKUTIA-SAKHA Sovereign State of YAKUT-SAKHA Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yakutsk) Mikhail Nikolayev


3 Condominiums:

HOLY TRINITY CATHEDRAL OF JERUSALEM Russian Property of the HOLY TRINITY CATHEDRAL OF JERUSALEM  (Holy Trinity Cathedral of Jerusalem)Local: SOBOR SVYATOY TROITSY Iyerusalim : СОБОР СВЯТОЙ ТРОИЦЫ Иерусалим (ru) + CATHEDRAL ASSEITA AMANDUS : קתדרלת השילוש הקדוש (he) + KATIDRAYIYAT AT-THAALUTH AL-MUQADAS fi Al-Quds : كاتدرائية الثالوث المقدس في القدس (ar)  (Cathedral Asseita Amandus)
SAIMAA CANAL AND MALY VYSOTSKY ISLAND Zones of SAIMAA CANAL AND MALY VYSOTSKY ISLAND [Finnish Lease to Russia]  (Saima Canal)Local: SAIMAAN KANAVA JA RAVANSAARI Alue (fi) + SAYMENSKIY KANAL I MALYY VYSOTSKIY OSTROV Zona : САЙМЕНСКИЙ КАНАЛ И МАЛЫЙ ВЫСОЦКИЙ ОСТРОВ Зона (ru)  (Saimaan Kanava)
SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов – SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)

22 Assisted Countries

ABKHAZIA Russian Sovereign State of the ABKHAZIAN Soviet Socialist Republic [Rebellion]  (Sukhumi) Vladislav Ardzinba
ADYGEA Republic of ADYGEA [Adygey Republic]  (Maykop) Aslan Dzharimov
ARMENIA Independent Republic of ARMENIA  (Erevan) President Levon Ter-Petrosyan
AZERBAIJAN Independent AZERBAIJANI Republic  (Baku) President Ayaz Mutallibov
BYELORUSSIA Independent State of the Republic of BELARUS [Supreme Council of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic]  (Minsk) Stanislav Shushkyevich
CHECHENIA Republic of CHECHENIA  (Grozny) President Dzhokhar Dudayev
CHERKESSIA Republic of CHERKESSIA  (Kavkazsky) Cherkess Congress
CRIMEA Ukrainian Sovereign State of the CRIMEAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Simferopol) Mykola Bahrov
DON COSSACKS ROSTOV Oblast [Unrecognized Union of Cossack Republics in Southern Russia]  (Rostov-on-Don + New Cherkassk) Vladimir Chub
GAGAUZIA GAGAUZ Soviet Socialist Republic [Unrecognized]  (Comrat) Stepan Topal
GEORGIA Independent Repubic of GEORGIA  (Tbilisi) President Zviad Gamsakhurdia
KARACHAY KARACHAY Republic  (Karachayevsk) Muhammad Bidjiev
KIRGIZSTAN Independent State of the Republic of KYRGYZSTAN [Kyrgyz Republic]  (Bishkek) President Askar Akayev
MARI Sovereign State of the MARI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yoshkar-Ola) Gennady Petrov
MOLDAVIA Independent State of the Republic of MOLDAVIA  (Chisinau) President Mircea Snegur
TAJIKISTAN Independent Republic of TAJIKISTAN  (Dushambe) Akbarsho Iskanderov
TATARSTAN Republic of TATARSTAN  (Kazan) President Mintimer Shaimiev
TRANSNISTRIA Transnistrian Moldavian Republic : TMR [Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic : PMR – rebellion]  (Tiraspol) Igor Smirnov
TURKMENISTAN Independent State of the Republic of TURKMENISTAN  (Ashkhabad) President Saparmurat Niyazov
UKRAINE Independent State of UKRAINE [Supreme Council]  (Kiev) Leonid Kravchuk
UPPER KUBAN UPPER KUBAN Cossack Republic  (Cherkessk-Batalpashinsk) Upper Kuban Cossacks
UZBEKISTAN Republic of UZBEKISTAN  (Tashkent a) President Islam Karimov



1 Assisted Movement

COSSACKIA Union of COSSACKS  ((New Cherkassk)) Cossack Union





1 Government or Movement in Exile

SOUTHERN AZERBAIJAN South Azerbaijan National Liberation Movement : SANLM  (Baku) Piruz Dilanchi



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

CAM RANH BAY Soviet Naval Base of CAM RANH BAY [Vietnam Lease to Soviet Union]  (Cam Ranh Bay)Local: Basa KAMRANH : База КАМРА́НЬ (ru)  (Kamranh)
LOURDES SIGINT Lourdes Signals Intelligence Station : LOURDES SIGINT Station  (Lourdes Sigint)Local: Radioelektronnyy Tsentr v LURDESE : Радиоэлектронный Центр в ЛУРДЕСЕ (ru) + Estación SIGINT LOURDES (es)  (Sigint Lourdes)
NORTHERN GROUP Soviet NORTHERN GROUP OF FORCES  (Legnica)Local: Sovetskiy SEVERNAYA GRUPPA VOYSK : Советский СЕВЕРНАЯ ГРУППА ВОЙСК (ru)  (Legnica)
SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов – SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)
TARTUS BASE Soviet Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)Local: Punkt Material´no-Tekhnicheskogo Obespecheniya VMF v Sirii : TARTUS Bazy : Пункт Mатериально-Tехнического Oбеспечения ВМФ в Сирии : ТАРТУС базы (ru)  (Tartus Bazy)
WESTERN GROUP Soviet WESTERN GROUP of Forces  (Dresden)Local: Sovetskiy ZAPADNAYA GRUPPA VOYSK : Советский ЗАПАДНАЯ ГРУППА ВОЙСК (ru)  (Dresden)


71 Organisations or Groupings membership (selective)


AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALL-EUROPE Transition to ALL-EUROPEAN Structures  (Moscow)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  ((Washington-District of Columbia))
ARCTIC Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy : AEPS  (Rovaniemi)
BALTIC SEA Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission : HELCOM  (Helsinki)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe : CFE  (Paris)
CUSTOMS Customs Cooperation Council : CCC  (Brussels)
DANUBE DANUBE Commission  (Budapest)
DEVELOPMENT LAW International Development Law Organization : IDLO  (Rome)
EAST-WEST Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe : CSCE [Charter of Paris for a New Europe]  (Paris)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
FIFA Federation of International Football Association : FIFA  (Zurich)
FRANCO-SOVIET ALLIANCE Joint Franco-Soviet Commission : FRANCO-SOVIET ALLIANCE  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HUMANITARIAN LAW International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission : IHFFC  (Berne)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBEC International Bank for Economic Co-operation : IBEC  (Moscow)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IIB International Investment Bank : IIB  (Moscow)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
INMARSAT International Mobile Satellite Organization : INMARSAT  (London)
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : INTELSAT  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERCOSMOS INTERCOSMOS Cooperation  (Moscow)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
INTERSPUTNIK International Organization of Space Communications INTERSPUTNIK  (Moscow)
ISO International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project : ITER  (Geneva)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IUCN World Conservation Union : International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
NATO-SOVIET UNION Hand of Friendship Meeting between NATO AND SOVIET UNION  (London)
NORTH ATLANTIC SALMON North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization : NASCO  (Edinburgh)
NORTH PACIFIC Convention for the North Pacific Marine Science Organization : PICES  (Ottawa)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
OPEN SKIES Negotiations for an OPEN SKIES Treaty  (Helsinki)
PEACE World Peace Council : WPC  (Helsinki)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
ROMS International Romani Union : IRU  (Prague)
SOUTH SOUTH Commission  (Caracas)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDDA United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs : UNDDA [Conference on Disarmament]  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children´s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York)
UNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research : UNIDIR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women : UNIFEM  (New York)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TOURISM World Tourism Organization : WTOO  (Madrid)



Note: NOTE: [en] From July 1990 to December 1991 many demands for membership in the USSR from previously dependent territories had not received a response and are therefore to be considered as « unrecognized ». They are however left this way because they prefigure the format of the Russian federation. [fr] De juillet 1990 à décembre 1991 de nombreuses demandes d´adhésion à l´URSS de la part de territoires auparavant dépendants n´avaient pas reçu de réponse et sont donc à considérer comme « non-reconnues ». Elles sont toutefois laissées de cette manière car elles préfigurent le format de la fédération russe.

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UPDATED ON: ~ 2024-APR-02 ~ .