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1905-MAR-10

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Revive China Society : Society for Regenerating CHINA : CHINA IN EXILE (Honolulu)  Sun Yat-Sen
Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire : CHINA (Peking)  Emperor Kwang-Hsu Tsai-Tien

Alternate Entities with similar names

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire
(Peking)

Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire PCA Member

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
Ta CH''ING Ti-Kuo : 大清帝国 (zh)
Emblem or Symbol

Emperor Kwang-Hsu Tsai-Tien
(ruler of CHINA since 1900-01-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Peking(Pei-Ching)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


CHINA Great Ching Empire : Great Manchu CHINESE Empire  (Peking)

4 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

LIANGKIANG Viceroyalty of LIANGKIANG Province : Province of Kiang-Su  (Soochow)Local: LIANG-CHIANG Sheng : 連江縣 省 (zh)  (Su-Chou)
PEICHIHLI Directly administered Territory of the Viceroyalty of Chihli Honan and Shantung : PEICHIHLI Province  (Tientsin)Local: PEI-CHIH-LI Sheng : 北直隶省 (zh)  (Tien-Chin)
SHENKAN Viceroyalty of SHENKAN Province  (Hsian-Foo)Local: SHAN-KAN Sheng : 陝甘省 (zh)  (Hsian-Fu)
SINKIANG Viceroyalty of SINKIANG Province  (Urumtsi)Local: HSIN-CHIANG Sheng : 新疆省 (zh)  (Ti-Hua)



3 Assisted Entities

MUSTANG Kingdom of Lo : Kingdom of MUSTANG under Nepalese Suzerainty  (Lo) King Jambian Pelbar
NEPAUL Protectorate of the Kingdom of NEPAUL  (Kathmandu) Maharajah Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah Dev
THIBET Protectorate of the Kingdom of THIBET  (Lhasa) Ganden Tripa Rinpoche Lobsang Gyaltsen



8 Territories in Asia:

AMDO AMDO Administrative Region  (Silung)Local: AMDO : ཨ༌མདོ (bo) + AN-TUO Hsien Hsin-Cheng : 安多縣的行政區 (zh)  (Silung)
CENTRAL MANCHURIA Chinese Region of CENTRAL MANCHURIA  (Kharbin)Local: HEI-LUNG-CHIANG  (Ha''erh-Pin)
CHAKHAR CHANGYUAN Special Region : Chakhar Eight Banners Territory  (Kalgan)Local: CHANG-YUAN T''e-Ch''ü : 張垣特區 (zh)  (Wan-Ch''üan)
INNER MONGOLIA Leagues of INNER MONGOLIA  (Chihfeng)Local: NEI-MENG-KU Lien-Meng : 內蒙古聯盟 (zh) + ÖVÖR MONGOL Chuulghan : ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ (mn)  (Ch''ih-Feng)
OUTER MONGOLIA Bogd Khanate of OUTER MONGOLIA : Uliastay Province  (Uliastay + Khuree)Local: Men-Ku-Kuo Po-K''o-To Han-Kuo : ULIASSUTAI Sheng - 蒙古國 大蒙古國 : 烏里雅蘇臺城省 (zh) + Bogd Haan MONGOL Uls : ᠪᠥᠭᠳᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (mn)  (Uliassutai + Ikk Khüree)
SUIYUAN Military Territory of SUIYUAN  (Kweihua)Local: SUI-YUAN Chün Ch''ü : 綏遠準出 (zh)  (Kuei-Hua)
TANNU-URIANKHAY Unorganized Autonomous Region of TANNU-URIANKHAY  (Kyzyl)Local: TANG-NU WU-LIANG-HAI : 唐努烏梁海 (zh)  (Kitzule)
TAOHSI MONGOLIA TAOHSI MONGOLIA Region  (Tingyuanying)Local: TAO-HSI MENG-KU Ti-Ch''ü : 桃溪蒙古地區 (zh)  (Ting-Yuan-Ying)

16 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

BHOOTAN British Indian Protectorate of BHOOTAN Tributary of Chinese Thibet  (Punakha + Thimphu)Local: State of BHOOTAN (en) + Druk Gyal-Khab : DRUK-YUL : འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ : འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ (dz)  (Punakha + Thimphu)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)Local: Établissement français d''AMOY (fr)  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
FUKIEN Japanese Sphere of Influence in FUKIEN Region part of Minche Viceroyalty  (Foochow)Local: FU-CHIEN Ti-Ch''ü : 福建地區 (zh)  (Fu-Chou)
INNER MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of MANCHURIA : Amour River Province  (Aigun)Local: PRIAMURYE Krai : ПРИАМУРЬЕ край (ru) + HEI-LUNG-CHIANG Sheng : 黑龍江省 (zh)  (Aihun)
KHAM KHAM Administrative Region in rebellion  (Darzedo + Batang)Local: KANG Hsing-Cheng Ch''ü-Yü : 康巴行政區 (zh) + KHAMS : ཁམས (bo)  (Ta-Chien-Lu + Ba-T''ang)
KOWLOON WALLED CITY Enclave of KOWLOON WALLED CITY  (Kowloon Walled City)Local: CHIU-LUNG CHAI CH''ENG : 九龍寨城 (zh) + GAU LUNG ZAAI SENG : 九龍寨城 (zho) + KOWLOON Walled City (en)  (Chiu-Lung Chai Ch''eng)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZHURIYA  (Manchzhuriya)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: CHUNG-HUA NAN-FANG Ti-Ch''ü : 中國南方地區 (zh) + Zone de CHINE DU SUD (fr)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)
SOUTHERN MANCHURIA Japanese Sphere of Influence in Occupied SOUTHERN MANCHURIA  (Mukden)Local: FENG-T''IEN Sheng : 奉天省 (zh) + HŌTEN-Shō : 奉天省 (ja)  (Feng-Tien-Fu)
SOUTHERN SHANTUNG German Sphere of Influence of SOUTHERN SHANTUNG  (Linyi)Local: SHAN-TUNG NAN-PU Ou : 山東南部區 (zh) + Gebiet des SÜDLICHEN SCHANTUNG (de)  (Linyi)



3 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


CONFUCIANISM Way of Life Teaching : CONFUCIANISM  (Chufu)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)



1 Government in Exile

THIBET IN EXILE Kingdom of THIBET in Exile  (Khuree) Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso




Other Current States within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

THIBET Protectorate of the Kingdom of THIBET  (Lhasa)


Other Current Entities within the 2019's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)
AMICHOW Independent State of AMICHOW  (Malipo)
AMOY ISLAND British Concession of AMOY ISLAND  (Siming)
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Austro-Hungarian Concession  (Tientsin Austro-Hungarian Concession)
BELGIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Belgian Concession  (Tientsin Belgian Concession)
BRITISH FOOCHOW British Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow British Concession)
BRITISH HANKOW British Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow British Concession)
BRITISH SHAMEEN British Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)
CHANGSHA CHANGSHA General Foreign Settlement  (Changsha Settlement)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE Russian Far East Administration of the China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER  (Kharbin)
CHINKIANG British Concession at CHINKIANG  (Chinkiang)
CHOUTSUN CHOUTSUN Foreign Settlement  (Choutsun)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FORMOSA ISLAND Dependency of FORMOSA  (Taihoku)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)
FUKIEN Japanese Sphere of Influence in FUKIEN Region part of Minche Viceroyalty  (Foochow)
GERMAN HANKOW German Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow German Concession)
GERMAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN German Concession  (German Tientsin Concession)
HAINAM ISLAND HAINAM ISLAND Circuit  (Hoi How)
HONGKONG British Crown Colony of HONGKONG  (City of Victoria)
HUKWANG Viceroyalty of HUKWANG Province  (Wuchang)
INNER MANCHURIA Russian Sphere of Influence of the Protectorate of MANCHURIA : Amour River Province  (Aigun)
ITALIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Italian Concession  (Tientsin Italian Concession)
JAPANESE CHUNGKING Japanese Concession at CHUNGKING  (Chungking Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE FOOCHOW Japanese Concession at FOOCHOW  (Foochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANGCHOW Japanese Concession in HANGCHOW  (Hangchow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE HANKOW Japanese Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE SOOCHOW Japanese Concession at SOOCHOW  (Soochow Japanese Concession)
JAPANESE TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Japanese Concession  (Amatsu)
KHAM KHAM Administrative Region in rebellion  (Darzedo + Batang)
KHINGAN KHINGAN League  (Wangyehmiao)
KIAOCHAU German Leased Territory of KIAO-CHAU  (Tsingtao)
KIUKIANG British Concession at KIUKIANG  (Kiukiang)
KOWLOON WALLED CITY Enclave of KOWLOON WALLED CITY  (Kowloon Walled City)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)
KWANGCHOWAN Leased Territory of KWANGCHOWAN  (Fort Bayard)
KWANTUNG Japan Occupied Province of KWANTUNG  (Port Arthur)
LIANGKWANG Viceroyalty of LIANGKWANG Province  (Canton)
MACAO MACAO Overseas Colony of Portugal  (Macao)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)
MATSU ISLANDS MATSU ISLANDS part of Lienkiang County  (Nankan)
MINCHE Viceroyalty of MIN-CHE : Province of Che-Kiang  (Hangchow)
NANKING INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT NANKING General Foreign Settlement  (Nanking International Settlement)
PAKHOI Concessions of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)
PARACEL ISLANDS PARACEL ISLANDS Group  (Woody Island)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)
PRATAS ISLANDS Atoll of PRATAS ISLANDS  (Tungsha)
QUEMOY ISLANDS QUEMOY ISLANDS part of Chinchew County  (Chinsheng)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)
RUSSIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Russian Concession  (Tientsin Russian Concesion)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Anglo-American led International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)
SOUTHERN MANCHURIA Japanese Sphere of Influence in Occupied SOUTHERN MANCHURIA  (Mukden)
SOUTHERN SHANTUNG German Sphere of Influence of SOUTHERN SHANTUNG  (Linyi)
SZECHWAN Viceroyalty of SZECHWAN Province  (Chengtu)
TALUNGTAN TALUNGTAN Protectorate  (Chaoyang)
TSINANFU TSINANFU Foreign Settlement  (Tsinan-Fu)
WEIHAIWEI British Leased Territory of WEIHAIWEI  (Port Edward)
WEIHSIEN WEIHSIEN Foreign Settlement  (Wei)
WUHU WUHU General Foreign Settlement  (Wuhu)
YANGTZE RIVER British Sphere of Influence on YANGTZE RIVER  (Hankow + Shanghai)
YUNNAN YUNNAN Province : Viceroyalty of Yunkwei  (Yunnan-Fu)
TEHUNG TEHUNG Region  (Kanfang)

Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). From 2019, the maps use my presentation style of the country's short name within its long name.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages currently forgotten.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnologic data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2019-NOV-12.